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Bone-titanium oxide interface in humans revealed by transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography
Dept of Biomaterials, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Göteborg .
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences. (Materials in Medicine)
Dept of Biomaterials, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Göteborg .
Uppsala Oral and Maxillofacial Centre, Uppsala.
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2012 (English)In: Journal of the Royal Society Interface, ISSN 1742-5662, E-ISSN 1742-5689, Vol. 9, no 67, 396-400 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Osseointegration, the direct contact between an implant surface and bone tissue, plays a critical role in interfacial stability and implant success. Analysis of interfacial zones at the micro- and nano-levels is essential to determine the extent of osseointegration. In this paper, a series of state-of-the-art microscopy techniques are used on laser-modified implants retrieved from humans. Partially laser-modified implants were retrieved after two and a half months' healing and processed for light and electron microscopy. Light microscopy showed osseointegration, with bone tissue growing both towards and away from the implant surface. Transmission electron microscopy revealed an intimate contact between mineralized bone and the laser-modified surface, including bone growth into the nano-structured oxide. This novel observation was verified by three-dimensional Z-contrast electron tomography, enabling visualization of an apatite layer, with different crystal direction compared with the apatite in the bone tissue, encompassing the nano-structured oxide. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the nano-scale osseointegration and bonding between apatite and surface-textured titanium oxide. These observations provide novel data in human specimens on the ultrastructure of the titanium–bone interface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 9, no 67, 396-400 p.
Keyword [en]
dental implant, laser, focused ion beam, transmission electron microscopy, electron tomography, bone
National Category
Medical Materials Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Science
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-160563DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2011.0420ISI: 000298380100018OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-160563DiVA: diva2:451397
Available from: 2011-10-25 Created: 2011-10-25 Last updated: 2013-01-22Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Nanoscale Osseointegration: Characterization of Biomaterials and their Interfaces with Electron Tomography
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanoscale Osseointegration: Characterization of Biomaterials and their Interfaces with Electron Tomography
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Bone response is one of the key determining factors in the overall success of biomaterials intended for bone regeneration and osseointegration. Understanding the formation of bone at an implant surface may lead to the improved design of biomaterials for the future. However, due to the inhomogeneity of bone tissue at an interface, two-dimensional images often lack detail on the interfacial complexity. Furthermore, the increasing use of nanotechnology in the design and production of biomaterials demands characterization techniques on a similar nano length scale.

While current analysis methods, such as X-ray tomography, transmission electron microscopy, focused ion beam microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, provide a basis for analysing biomaterials and biointerfaces, they are incapable of doing so with both nanometre resolution and three-dimensional clarity. In contrast, electron tomography may be used to characterize the three-dimensional structure of biomaterials and their interfaces to bone with nanometre resolution.

In this work, hydroxyapatite scaffolds, and laser-modified titanium and Ti6Al4V implants were studied in contact with human or rabbit bone. Z-contrast electron tomography revealed that the orientation of collagen in bone apposing hydroxyapatite, titanium and Ti6Al4V implants is consistently parallel to the implant surface, where the bioactive layer that precipitates on HA is oriented perpendicular to the implant surface. With this method, complete three-dimensional nanoscale osseointegration of titanium-based implants was also established.

The extension of this technique from interfacial analyses to the design of biomaterials provided an understanding of the pore structure of mesoporous titania. In further investigations, the open three-dimensional pore network, as revealed by electron tomography, showed promise as a coating that improves implant osseointegration and enables site-specific drug-delivery from an implant surface.

In summary, it was demonstrated that two-dimensional characterization techniques were insufficient for the investigation of nanostructured biomaterials, as well as their interfaces to bone. Visualizing biointerfaces and biomaterials with nanometre precision in three-dimensions can expose new fundamental information on materials properties and bone response, enabling better design of biomaterials for the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. 61 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 962
Electron tomography, transmission electron microscopy, hydroxyapatite, titanium, titania, bone, implant, osseointegration, interface, mesoporous
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Materials Science
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-179445 (URN)978-91-554-8441-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-10-05, Polhemsalen, Ångström Laboratory, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
Available from: 2012-09-14 Created: 2012-08-15 Last updated: 2013-01-22Bibliographically approved

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