The precautionary principle has evolved from the recognition that scientific certainty often comes too late to design effective responses for preventing environmental threats. In article 15 of the Rio Declaration it is defined as:
Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation.
The precautionary principle is getting more widespread in international law. The next step is to increase and improve national implementation. Thus, the purpose of this thesis has been to analyse how the precautionary principle can be implemented into national environmental law, and what the main factors influencing the success of national precautionary actions and measures are.
The main content of this thesis includes:
· Analysis of how the precautionary principle has been implemented in Swedish environmental legislation and used for phasing out chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in Sweden.
· An identification and analysis of main factors influencing the success of national actions and measures based upon the precautionary principle, including political and economic factors, factors related to research, information and technology, and legal and organisational factors.
Lund: International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics , 2001. , 91 p.