Chemical Insights into the Instability of Cu(2)ZnSnS(4) Films during Annealing
2011 (English)In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 23, no 20, 4625-4633 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Cu(2)ZnSnS(4) (CZTS) shows great potential for cheap, efficient photovoltaic devices. However, one problem during synthesis of CZTS films is the loss of Sn as a result of decomposition and evaporation of SnS. This paper uses kinetic models to show that the mechanism of the decomposition reaction probably occurs in at least two stages; first, a loss of sulfur which causes dissociation of the structure into binary sulfides, and only then the evaporation of SnS. Knowledge of the reaction mechanism helps to identify the driving force for decomposition as arising from the relative instability of Sn(IV) in CZTS against reduction; this theory is backed up by thermodynamic data. The volatility of SnS further exaggerates the decomposition by rendering it irreversible. This insight, alongside experimental data, allows prediction of the annealing conditions required to stabilize CZTS surfaces. A fundamental incompatibility of CZTS with high-temperature, vacuum-based processing is exposed, distinguishing it from related indium-containing compounds. This offers an explanation as to why the most efficient CZTS devices to-date all arise from "two-stage" fabrication processes involving low temperature deposition followed by annealing at high pressure, and provides key information for designing successful annealing strategies.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 23, no 20, 4625-4633 p.
kesterite, CZTS, Cu(2)ZnSnS(4), photovoltaics, thermodynamics of sulfide compounds
Engineering and Technology
Research subject Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-161039DOI: 10.1021/cm202379sISI: 000295897400029OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-161039DiVA: diva2:456903