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Achievement of Specificational Information Usage with True and False Feedback in Learning a Visual Relative-Mass Discrimination Task
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
2007 (English)In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, ISSN 0096-1523, E-ISSN 1939-1277, Vol. 33, no 1, 163-182 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Participants' usage of informational variables in learning visual relative-mass discrimination in collisions was tracked by means of PROBIT correlations. Four groups received feedback that was true or accorded with either of three non-specificational cue variables. A majority in each group adopted the feedback but several participants defied the false feedback. Unlike in previous research, the fit to data of the relative-mass invariant could not be bettered by post hoc linear combinations of the cues. Discriminability was lower in the use of the invariant. Analytic complexity was rejected as an explanation for discriminability differences. A "smart mechanism" for pickup of the relative-mass invariant was developed as an extension of G. Johansson's (1950/1994) vector model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Psychological Association (APA) , 2007. Vol. 33, no 1, 163-182 p.
Keyword [en]
perceptual skill acquisition, invariant usage, false feedback, smart mechanisms, Johansson's vector model
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-17939DOI: 10.1037/0096-1523.33.1.16ISI: 000243768800012OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-17939DiVA: diva2:45710
Projects
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond (RJ)Vetenskapsrådet (VR)
Available from: 2007-03-05 Created: 2007-03-05 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Modes of Apprehension, and Indicators thereof, in Visual Discrimination of Relative Mass
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modes of Apprehension, and Indicators thereof, in Visual Discrimination of Relative Mass
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Perception is a fundamental function because it allows organisms to be in contact with the environment and adjust to environmental conditions. Humans also possess higher intellectual functions, which allow for elaborate handling of perceptually obtained information. The thesis concerns a distinction between an inferential ("cognitive") mode and a (direct-)perceptual mode of apprehension, and a notion of perceptual skill acquisition as a transition from the inferential to the perceptual mode. The mode distinction and the mode-transition model was formulated by Runeson, Juslin, and Olsson (2000) within the ecological direct-perception framework (Gibson, 1966, 1979).

The modes of apprehension were investigated in an experimental paradigm that concerned visual perception of the relative mass of two colliding objects. The relative mass is specified by an optical variable in the collision movement pattern, which observers may pick up while functioning in the perceptual mode. However, novices often rely on other, nonspecifying, optical variables that may constitute cues that are used in the inferential mode (Runeson et al., 2000).

Four tentative mode indicators were employed: participants' realism of confidence, introspective mode reports, amplitudes of brain event-related potentials, and response times. Generally, the results did not support the mode-transition model of skill acquisition. Furthermore, results suggested that reliance both on the specifying and nonspecifying variables might have occurred either in the inferential or in the perceptual mode. However, the mode indicators may not have captured mode as intended. For instance, the discriminability of used optical variables, and not the mode of apprehension, may have affected both amplitudes of event-related potentials and mode reports.

It is argued that the mode-transition model and the distinction between two modes of apprehension should be further investigated employing other methodologies, and, furthermore, that the mode distinction has a place within an ecological framework.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2009
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 1652-9030 ; 52
Keyword
Modes of apprehension, dynamical-event perception, ecological psychology
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-108214 (URN)978-91-554-7602-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-10-16, Sal VIII, Universitetshuset, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-09-25 Created: 2009-09-08 Last updated: 2011-01-12Bibliographically approved

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