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Measurements and Simulations of Wave Propagation for Wireless Sensor Networks in Jet Engine Turbines
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
2011 (English)In: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, ISSN 1536-1225, E-ISSN 1548-5757, Vol. 10, 1139-1142 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this letter, measurements and simulations of wave propagation inside a jet engine fan have been performed. The investigation was done using both EM simulations of different cases of propagation inside the engine and by measuring the corresponding cases inside a half-scale model of a jet engine fan. The average path loss was calculated, and the shapes of the fading distributions were extracted. The time between two consecutive fading dips was measured in the empirical part. Measurements were performed with engine speeds of both 30 and 60 rpm and were shown to be linearly scalable from 60 rpm to full speed of 10 000 rpm. The results showed an average path loss of about 55 dB. When scaling the measurements from 60 rpm to full-speed rotation of about 10 000 rpm, the fading was so severe that the time slot between consecutive fading dips was limited to 290 mu s.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 10, 1139-1142 p.
Keyword [en]
Communication channels, electromagnetic propagation, propagation losses, radio communication, radiowave propagation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-161778DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2011.2171309ISI: 000296260200004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-161778DiVA: diva2:457917
Available from: 2011-11-21 Created: 2011-11-17 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Wireless Sensor Network and Radio Wave Propagation in Harsh Environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wireless Sensor Network and Radio Wave Propagation in Harsh Environments
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This licentiate thesis cover two important subjects regarding the application of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Both subjects are related to propagation mechanisms. The first subject is what the radio channel looks like and how it behaves. In this case three different, and extreme, environments are measured and characterized - a train, a half scale jet engine fan and a full scale military jet engine. The train environment is characterized by measure the path loss and fading over distance. For the case with the jet engines, difficulties were found to measure the path loss over distance, so in this case stationary antennas were used, but with the engine running. Each of these shows an extreme type of fading, also known as Rayleigh fading. For the case of jet engine at full speed (about 10 000 rpm), it was shown that the time between two consecutive fading dips where only 290 μs, which is about twice the length of a data package from the WSN involved in this project. The Rayleigh distributed amplitude fading occurs when there is a multipath environment, the radio waves propagate several different paths between the transmitter and receiver, which causes a superposition at the receiver. When having Rayleigh fading, the performance of the radio link is greatly reduced. When applying a WSN in this type of environment, the use of several antennas will improve the received power of the signal. This is done by adding extra antennas to a wireless system and in a clever way combine the signals, or select one of two signals from the antennas. In a book chapter and in a paper presented in the thesis, a new and low energy type of diversity is described. The performance of this new type of diversity is shown by having a two branch diversity and discretely shifting the phase of each branch before combining them. In this case, four relative phase shifts are performed during each symbol received. When performing a combining like this, the energy is saved by not having any decision circuitry. By using this type of diversity and using a 90 % signal reliability and an ideal environment, the diversity gain is 5.5 dB for an averaging detector and 10.3 dB for a peak detector.  The drawback with this system is that it is only limited for systems using simple types of amplitude (ASK) or frequency (FSK) modulation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Uppsala universitet, 2012
Keyword
Wireless Sensor Network, WISENET, Wave Propagation, Radio Communication, Harsh Environmnents
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microwave Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-173479 (URN)
Presentation
2012-05-29, Polhemssalen, Ångströmlaboratioriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 14:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
WisenetWisejet
Available from: 2012-05-04 Created: 2012-04-25 Last updated: 2012-05-04Bibliographically approved
2. Wireless Interface Technologies for Sensor Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wireless Interface Technologies for Sensor Networks
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The main focus of the work presented in this thesis concerns the development and improvement of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) as well as Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). WSN consist of interlinked, wireless devices (nodes) capable of relaying data wirelessly between the nodes. The applications of WSNs are very broad and cover both wireless fitness monitoring systems such as pulse watches or wireless temperature monitoring of buildings, among others.

The topics investigated in the work presented within this thesis covers antenna design, wireless propagation environment evaluation and modeling, adaptive antenna control and wireless nodes system design and evaluation. In order to provide an end-user suitable solution for wireless nodes the devices require both small form factor and good performance in order to be competitive on the marked and thus the main part of this thesis focuses on techniques developed and data collected to help achieve these goals. 

Several different prototype systems have been developed which have been used to measure data by the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), GKN Aerospace Sweden AB, the Swedish Transport Administration. The system developed with GKN Aerospace was used to do real-time test measurements inside a running RM12 jet engine and required a substantial amount of measurements, environmental modeling and system validation in order to properly design a wireless system suitable for the harsh and fast fading environment inside a jet engine. For FOI improvements were made on a wearable wireless body area network initially developed during the authors master thesis work. Refinements included work on new generation wireless nodes, antenna packaging and node-supported diversity techniques.

Work and papers regarding the design of different types of antennas suitable for wireless nodes are presented. The primary constraints on the presented antennas are the limited electrical size. The types of antennas developed include electrically small helix antennas manufactured both on stretchable substrates consisting of a PDMS substrate with Galinstan as the liquid metal conductors, screen printed silver ink for helix antennas and conformal dual patch antennas for wireless sensor nodes. Other standard type antennas are included on the wireless sensors as well.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. 97 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1216
Keyword
Wireless Sensor Networks, Body Area Networks, Jet Turbine, Electrically Small Antennas, Antenna Theory, WISENET, Wisejet
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Embedded Systems Communication Systems Telecommunications
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microwave Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-239400 (URN)978-91-554-9136-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-02-13, Ångströmslaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-01-23 Created: 2014-12-22 Last updated: 2015-03-09

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Gruden, MathiasJobs, MagnusRydberg, Anders

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