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Synthesis and Characterization of a Series of Highly Fluorogenic Substrates for Glutathione Transferases, a General Strategy
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2011 (English)In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 133, no 35, 14109-14119 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are used in biotechnology applications as fusion partners for facile purification and are also overexpressed in certain tumors. Consequently, there is a need for sensitive detection of the enzymes. Here we describe a general strategy for the synthesis and characterization of novel fluorogenic substrates for GSTs. The substrates were synthesized by introducing an electrophilic sulfonamide linkage to fluorescent molecules containing an amino group [e.g., 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonamide (DNs) derivatives of coumarin, cresyl violet, and rhodamine]. The derivatives were essentially nonfluorescent, and upon GST catalyzed cleavage of the dinitrobenzenesulfonamide, free fluorophore is released (and 1-glutathionyl-2,4-dinitrobenzene + SO(2)). All the coumarin-, cresyl violet- and rhodamine-based fluorogenic probes turned out to be good substrates for most GSTs, especially for GSTA(1-1), in terms of strong fluorescence increases (71-1200-fold), high k(cat)/K(m) values (10(4)-10(7) M(-1) s(-1)) and significant rate enhancements (10(6)-10(9)-fold). The substrates were successfully applied to quantitate very low levels of GST activity in cell extracts and DNs-cresyl violet was also successfully applied to the imaging of microsomal MGST(1) activity in living cells. The cresyl violet stained cells retained their fluorescence after fixation, which is a very useful property. In summary, we describe a general and versatile strategy to generate fluorogenic GST substrates, some of them providing the most sensitive assays so far described for GSTs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 133, no 35, 14109-14119 p.
National Category
Chemical Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-161950DOI: 10.1021/ja205500yISI: 000295241400065OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-161950DiVA: diva2:457970
Available from: 2011-11-21 Created: 2011-11-21 Last updated: 2011-11-21Bibliographically approved

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Mannervik, Bengt
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Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry
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