Towards an Integrative Framework of Brand Country of Origin Recognition Determinants: A Cross-Classified Hierarchical Model
2011 (English)In: International Marketing Review, ISSN 0265-1335, Vol. 28, no 6, 530-558 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework integrating the types and levels of thedeterminants of brand country of origin (CO) recognition and to provide evidence on internet users’brand CO recognition rates, using a sample of multi-regional and global brands from a variety ofproduct categories and countries.
Design/methodology/approach – The authors integrate “level-1” consumer and brandcharacteristics and “level-2” product category and country effects in a single framework. Dataobtained through an original on-line survey hosted by Yahoo provide the basis for the empiricalanalysis. Seven hypotheses are tested using a two-level cross-classified random-effect model (HCM2).
Findings – It is found that: education is positively related with brand CO recognition; experience withbrands is positively related with brand CO recognition; integration between the consumer and thecountry of a foreign brand is positively related with brand CO recognition; internet users’ classificationperformance is significantly better for domestic than for foreign brands; brand-name congruence withtrue brand origin is positively related with brand CO recognition; brand equity explains brand COrecognition; and product categories with higher consumer involvement enhance brand CO recognition.Brand CO recognition performance by internet users is in line with classification performance ratesreported in other studies dealing with well-known and global brands.
Practical implications – Managers would benefit from considering product category and countryaspects of their most valuable brands. Policy makers should encourage firms to promote a clearassociation between brands and countries (when these countries have a positive image) anddiscriminate between high and low involvement product categories.
Originality/value – The paper contributes to the brand CO awareness literature by integratingconsumer and brand characteristics in a theoretical model, and identifying level-2 product categoryfeatures and CO effects previously disregarded in brand CO recognition frameworks. In addition, thestudy positively contrasts with previous research by providing empirical evidence on brand COrecognition from the largest set of global brands (109), countries of origin (19) and product categories(15) ever investigated.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 28, no 6, 530-558 p.
Brand awareness, Country of origin, Brand CO recognition, Cross-classified hierarchical model, International marketing
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-162405DOI: 10.1108/02651331111181402OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-162405DiVA: diva2:460399