Reduced variation on the chicken Z chromosome
2004 (English)In: Genetics, ISSN 0016-6731, E-ISSN 1943-2631, Vol. 167, no 1, 377-385 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Understanding the population genetic factors that shape genome variability is pivotal to the design and interpretation of studies using large-scale polymorphism data. We analyzed patterns of polymorphism and divergence at Z-linked and autosomal loci in the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) to study the influence of mutation, effective population size, selection, and demography on levels of genetic diversity. A total of 14 autosomal introns (8316 bp) and 13 Z-linked introns (6856 bp) were sequenced in 50 chicken chromosomes from 10 highly divergent breeds. Genetic variation was significantly lower at Z-linked than at autosomal loci, with one segregating site every 39 bp at autosomal loci (θW = 5.8 ± 0.8 × 10–3) and one every 156 bp on the Z chromosome (θW = 1.4 ± 0.4 × 10–3). This difference may in part be due to a low male effective population size arising from skewed reproductive success among males, evident both in the wild ancestor—the red jungle fowl—and in poultry breeding. However, this effect cannot entirely explain the observed three- to fourfold reduction in Z chromosome diversity. Selection, in particular selective sweeps, may therefore have had an impact on reducing variation on the Z chromosome, a hypothesis supported by the observation of heterogeneity in diversity levels among loci on the Z chromosome and the lower recombination rate on Z than on autosomes. Selection on sex-linked genes may be particularly important in organisms with female heterogamety since the heritability of sex-linked sexually antagonistic alleles advantageous to males is improved when fathers pass a Z chromosome to their sons.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. Vol. 167, no 1, 377-385 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-162848DOI: 10.1534/genetics.167.1.377PubMedID: 15166162OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-162848DiVA: diva2:461759