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Omega-3 polyunsaturated essential fatty acids are associated with depression in adolescents with eating disorders and weight loss
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
2011 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, no 12, 1610-1615 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: To study the relationship between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) status and depression in adolescents with eating disorders (ED) and weight loss.

Methods: Erythrocyte membranes from 217 adolescents (209 girls, eight boys) with ED were analysed for fatty acids (FA). ED and depression were diagnosed by clinical interviews and supported by self-report instruments.

Results: Adolescents with ED and depression did not differ from those with ED only in terms of age, BMI, weight loss and duration of disease. In their FA profile, depressed adolescents had lower proportions of eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA), the end products of the omega 3 PUFA series. The ratio of long-chain (>18 carbons) omega 6/omega 3 PUFA was therefore higher in depressed adolescents. Indices of desaturase activities did not differ between depressed and not depressed adolescents.

Conclusion: Low omega 3 status is related to depression in adolescents with ED. This cannot be explained by differences in weight (loss) and duration of disease, nor by differences in PUFA processing by desaturases. Data suggest a lower dietary intake of omega 3 PUFA in those with depression. Further investigations should determine whether omega 3 PUFA status improves by refeeding only or whether supplementation with PUFA is warranted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 100, no 12, 1610-1615 p.
Keyword [en]
Delta-5-desaturase, Delta-6-desaturase, Depression, Eating disorder, Essential fatty acids
National Category
Pediatrics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-162681DOI: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2011.02400.xISI: 000296899500026PubMedID: 21732977OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-162681DiVA: diva2:462551
Available from: 2011-12-07 Created: 2011-12-05 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Eating Disorders - Aspects of Treatment and Outcome
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Eating Disorders - Aspects of Treatment and Outcome
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Eating disorders (ED) usually develop during adolescence, and intervention to stop further weight loss is believed to improve outcome and long-term prognosis. Adolescents with ED who do not receive effective treatment risk poor outcome and even untimely death as adults.

The first aim of this thesis was to investigate long-term mortality and causes of death in a series of female adults with chronic ED. The second aim was to study the one-year outcome of an unselected series of adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa (AN) and “other restrictive eating disorders” who had been treated within a specialist ED out-patient service focused on nutritional rehabilitation based on family therapy and without planned hospitalization. The third aim was to investigate the possible metabolic and hormonal side effects of olanzapine when used as an adjunct to facilitate nutritional rehabilitation. The fourth aim was to investigate the relationship between polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status and depression.

In adult women with chronic ED, a very low body mass index and psychiatric co-morbidity confer a substantially increased risk of premature death.

A treatment programme for adolescent ED with rapid access to assessment and prompt start of treatment with initial emphasis on nutritional rehabilitation proved efficient. The outcome was encouraging, as 43% of all patients with ED and 19% of those with AN did not have an ED at one-year follow-up. Of the remaining patients the vast majority had gained weight and regained menstruation, and were back in school on a full-time basis. Olanzapine was used to reduce anxiety, excessive exercise and rumination over weight and shape. Side effects were similar to those observed in normal-weight individuals, and do not preclude its use in underweight adolescents with ED. Low ω3 PUFA were associated with depression. The ω3 PUFA status improved during nutritional rehabilitation with ordinary foods and without supplementation.

The investigations indicate that adolescent ED can be successfully treated in an out-/day-patient setting. An essential feature of the service is rapid handling and weight gain. Further weight loss can be avoided, and chronic disease hopefully prevented.

 

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. 67 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 916
Keyword
Anorexia Nervosa, Eating Disorders, Mortality, Standard Mortality Ratio, Adolescent, Family-Based Treatment, Out-patient, Olanzapine, Omega-3
National Category
Psychiatry
Research subject
Child and Youth Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-204209 (URN)978-91-554-8706-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-09-12, Rudbeck salen, Rudbeckslaboratoriet, ing. C, bv, Dag Hammarskjöldsväg 20, Uppsala, 09:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-08-21 Created: 2013-07-24 Last updated: 2014-01-07Bibliographically approved

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Swenne, IngemarRosling, AgnetaTengblad, SivVessby, Bengt

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