Biomarkers and molecular imaging in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors
2011 (English)In: Hormone and Metabolic Research, ISSN 0018-5043, Vol. 43, no 12, 832-837 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Neuroendocrine gastrointestinal and pancreatic tumors (GEP-NETs) are a heterogenous group of cancers with various clinical expressions. All tumors produce and secret various amines and peptides, which can be used as tissue and circulating markers. Chromogranin A (CgA) is a general tumor marker stored in secretory granules within the tumor cell and released upon stimulation. CgA is the best general tumor marker at the moment, expressed in 80-90% in all patients with GEP-NETs. CgA and NSE are used as tissue markers for the delineation of the neuroendocrine features of the tumors, but recently also the proliferation marker Ki-67 has been included in the standard procedure for evaluation of the proliferation. GEP-NETs are classified into well differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (Ki-67<2%), well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (Ki-67 2-20%), poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (Ki-67>20%). The molecular imaging of NETs is based on the ability of these tumor cells to express somatostatin receptors as well as the APUD features. Octreoscan has been applied for imaging and staging of the disease for more than 2 decades and will nowadays be replaced by 68Ga-DOTA-Octreotate, with higher specificity and sensitivity. 18Fluoro-DOPA and 11C-5HTP are specific tracers for NETs with high specificity and selectivity. A new potential biomarker is auto-antibodies to paraneoplastic antigen MA2, which might indicate early recurrence of carcinoids after surgery with a curative intent. Circulating tumor cells (CTC) have been applied in GEP-NETs quite recently. There is still an unmet need for new markers.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 43, no 12, 832-837 p.
Cancer and Oncology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-163762DOI: 10.1055/s-0031-1287794ISI: 000297785500003PubMedID: 22009449OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-163762DiVA: diva2:464775