Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction contributes to hypertension and mechanisms of atherosclerosis. Agents that improve EC function may provide vascular protection, especially in patients with multiple risk factors. In this study, we examined the effects of beta(1)-selective antagonists, nebivolol and metoprolol, on vascular and renal EC function in spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats with diabetes.
Male SH rats were treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to induce type 2 diabetes, followed by treatment with nebivolol or metoprolol at 2 mg/kg/day (vs. vehicle). After 4 weeks, aortic and glomerular ECs were isolated, stimulated with calcium ionophore (CaI), and assayed for nitric oxide (NO), and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) release using amperometric approaches.
Glucose and mean blood pressure (BP) levels were significantly elevated in diabetic SH rats. In aortic ECs isolated from diabetic SH rats, NO production decreased by 20% whereas ONOO(-) increased by 16%, an effect linked to NAD(P)H oxidase and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) uncoupling. Nebivolol treatment reduced glucose and BP levels and restored aortic EC function in diabetic SH rats, as indicated by a 30% increase and 23% decrease in NO and ONOO(-) levels, respectively. The NO/ONOO(-) ratio increased by more than twofold with nebivolol treatment in aortic and glomerular ECs. Despite similar reductions in glucose and mean BP levels, metoprolol had a smaller effect on the NO/ONOO(-) ratio in glomerular ECs but no effect in aortic ECs.
Vascular and renal NO was significantly reduced in diabetic hypertensive rats and correlated with metabolic changes. Nebivolol reversed these effects in a manner consistent with enhanced endothelial function.
2009. Vol. 22, no 11, 1160-1166 p.