Fluorine as a π donor. Carbon 1s photoelectron spectroscopy and proton affinities of fluorobenzenes
2006 (English)In: Journal of Organic Chemistry, ISSN 0022-3263, Vol. 71, no 5, 1961-1968 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The carbon 1s ionization energies for all of the carbon atoms in 10 fluorine-substituted benzene molecules have been measured by high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy. A total of 30 ionization energies can be accurately described by an additivity model with four parameters that describe the effect of a fluorine that is ipso, ortho, meta, or para to the site of ionization. A similar additivity relationship describes the enthalpies of protonation. The additivity parameters reflect the role of fluorine as an electron-withdrawing group and as a π-electron donating group. The ionization energies and proton affinities correlate linearly, but there are four different correlations depending on whether there are 0, 1, 2, or 3 fluorines ortho or para to the site of ionization or protonation. That there are four correlation lines can be understood in terms of the ability of the hydrogens at the site of protonation to act as a π-electron acceptor. A comparison of the ionization energies and proton affinities, together with the results of electronic structure calculations, gives insight into the effects of fluorine as an electron-withdrawing group and as a π donor, both in the neutral molecule and in response to an added positive charge.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 71, no 5, 1961-1968 p.
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-19766DOI: doi:10.1021/jo0523417OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-19766DiVA: diva2:47538