uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
High Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance in Pathogenic Escherichia coli from Large- and Small-Scale Poultry Farms in Bangladesh
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
Show others and affiliations
2011 (English)In: Avian diseases, ISSN 0005-2086, Vol. 55, no 4, 689-692 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Antibiotic resistance in avian bacterial pathogens is a common problem in the Bangladesh poultry industry. The aim of the present study was to provide information on the present status of antibiotic resistance patterns in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli in Bangladesh. Of 279 dead or sick poultry of different ages, 101 pathogenic E. coli strains isolated from broilers and layer hens with colibacillosis infections were screened to determine phenotypic expression of antimicrobial resistance against 13 antibiotics used in both veterinary and human medicine in Bangladesh. Of 101 pathogenic E. coli isolates, more than 55% were resistant to at least one or more of the tested compounds, and 36.6% of the isolates showed multiple-drug-resistant phenotypes. The most common resistances observed were against tetracycline (45.5%), trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (26.7%), nalidixic acid (25.7%), ampicillin (25.7%), and streptomycin (20.8%). Resistance to ciprofloxacin (12.9%), chlormaphenicol (8.9%), nitrofurantoin (2%), and gentamicin (2%) was also observed, and none of the isolates were resistant to tigecycline as well as extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers. One isolate was resistant to cefuroxime (1%), cefadroxil (1%), and mecillinam (1%) but was not an ESBL producer. Resistance rates, although significant in Bangladeshi isolates, were found to be lower than those reported for avian isolates from the Republic of Korea and clinical, avian, and environmental isolates from Bangladesh. The high level of antibiotic resistance in avian pathogens from Bangladesh is worrisome and indicates that widespread use of antibiotics as feed additives for growth promotion and disease prevention could have negative implications for human and animal health and the environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 55, no 4, 689-692 p.
Keyword [en]
Escherichia coli, pathogenic, colibacillosis, antibiotics, antibiotic resistance
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-167635ISI: 000298539000024OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-167635DiVA: diva2:488980
Available from: 2012-02-02 Created: 2012-01-31 Last updated: 2013-05-27Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Antimicrobial Resistance and Production of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae from Birds in Bangladesh
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antimicrobial Resistance and Production of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae from Birds in Bangladesh
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The dissemination of members of the Enterobacteriaceae family with extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) has become a global concern. ESBLs and MBLs have been reported in humans, domestic animals, wildlife and the environment, and their isolation frequencies are increasing rapidly worldwide.  Most studies have been performed in developed countries and quite few in developing countries, where the antibiotic consumption is often poorly controlled. To explore the environmental contamination of antibiotic resistance in Bangladesh, and of ESBLs and MBLs in particular, fecal samples from poultry and wild birds were studied in this thesis.

Samples were collected from both sick birds (poultry having Escherichia coli infections) and healthy birds (free-range poultry, seagulls and crows) residing in different environmental niches. Samples from patients and fresh/sea water were included, to follow the chain of antibiotic resistance in bacteria from humans to the environment. Information regarding the antibiotic usage in poultry production was also collected. The susceptibility of avian E. coli isolates cultured with and without selective pressure was tested against antibiotics commonly used in human and veterinary medicine in Bangladesh. Special attention was paid to ESBL-producing isolates, which were further characterized genetically.

The results of the studies showed that E. coli isolates from commercial poultry, free-range poultry, gulls and crows were resistant to several classes of antibiotics, and that the level and spectrum of antibiotic resistance varied between different bird populations. There was no NDM-producer found among the birds, but ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae could be found in up to 59% of the crows, the birds with the highest carriage rate of multiresistant  Enterobacteriaceae of all bird species studied. The most common ESBL-type was CTX-M-15, which also is the most common in the human population in Bangladesh. Birds also shared clinically important sequence types with humans, including E. coli clone O25b-ST131.

In conclusion, ESBL-producing bacteria with multiresistance are easily spread to wild birds. Their opportunistic feeding behavior at poorly managed hospital waste dumps and nearby water bodies makes them into both reservoirs and active spreaders. The high level of antibiotic resistant and ESBL-producing bacteria in the bird population of Bangladesh is worrying, and there is no easy solution in sight. Nationwide programs are necessary to both improve the management of hospital waste and sewage and the control of the antibiotic usage to prevent further environmental contamination. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. 75 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 911
Antimicrobial Resistance, ESBL, CTX-M, NDM, Poultry, Wild birds, E. coli, Bangladesh, Enterobacteriaceae, Antibiotics
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Research subject
Epidemiology; Microbiology; Medical Science
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-199686 (URN)978-91-554-8691-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-06-12, Hörsalen, Klinisk mikrobiologi, Dag Hammarskjöldsväg 17 ingång D1, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)

Time of defence has been changed to 09:00 am on 2013-05-27

Available from: 2013-05-22 Created: 2013-05-13 Last updated: 2013-08-30

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links


Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Hasan, BadrulDrobni, MirvaOlsen, Björn
By organisation
Department of Medical Sciences
In the same journal
Avian diseases
Medical and Health Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Total: 687 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link