X-ray magneto-optical (MO) spectroscopies have developed into extremelypowerful tools for the investigation of both fundamental and applied magnetism.In particular the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) has become widelyused during the last decade. A disadvantage of the XMCD and related techniquesis that these can be applied only to study ferromagnetic (FM) materials. Thereexists currently an increasing interest in antiferromagnetic (AFM) materialswhich call for different x-ray spectroscopic techniques. A novel, versatilemagneto-x-ray spectroscopy has been developed, that can be applied to AFM’s.This magneto-x-ray spectroscopy may be measured in reflection and is relatedto the x-ray Voigt effect and the x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD), whichboth involve a transmission geometry. Using the newly developed technique,element-selective x-ray MO spectra of AFM materials have been measured forthe first time in reflection. The XMLD-type reflection spectroscopy has beenapplied to buried AFM layers, which was demonstrated by spectra obtained fromexchange-biased microstructures of current technological importance: NiO/Coand NiMn/Co, containing the insulating AFM NiO, and the metallic AFM NiMn,respectively. The measured spectrum provides information about the exchangesplitd-density of states of the AFM atom.
2002. 7-10 p.