Publications
Download:
File size:
2978 kb
Format:
application/pdf
Author:
Schmitow, Clara A. (Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology)
Title:
The Social World Through Infants’ Eyes: How Infants Look at Different Social Figures
Department:
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology
Publication type:
Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Language:
English
Place of publ.: Uppsala Publisher: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis
Pages:
66
Series:
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 1652-9030; 75
Year of publ.:
2012
URI:
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-168304
Permanent link:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-168304
ISBN:
978-91-554-8269-5
Subject category:
Social Sciences
Research subject:
Psychology
Keywords(en) :
infant social looking, emotional facial expressions, experience, identity, behavior regulation, head-mounted cameras, eye-tracking
Abstract(en) :

This thesis aims to study how infants actively look at different social figures: parents and strangers. To study infants’ looking behavior in “live” situations, new methods to record looking behavior were tested.

Study 1 developed a method to record looking behavior in “live” situations: a head-mounted camera. This method was calibrated for a number of angles and then used to measure how infants look at faces and objects in two “live” situations, a conversation and a joint action. High reliability was found for the head-mounted camera in horizontal positions and the possibility of using it in a number of “live” situations with infants from 6 to 14 months of age.

In Study 2, the head-mounted camera and a static camera and were used in a “live” ambiguous situation to study infants’ preferences to refer to and to use the information from parents and strangers. The results from Experiment 1 of Study 2 showed that if no information is provided in ambiguous situations in the lab, infants at 10 months of age look more at the experimenter than at the parent. Further, Experiment 2 of Study 2 showed that the infants also used more of the emotional information provided by the experimenter than by the parent to regulate their behavior.

 In Study 3, looking behavior was analyzed in detail when infants looked at pictures of their parents’ and strangers’ emotional facial expressions. Corneal eye tracking was used to record looking. In this study, the influence of identity, gender, emotional expressions and parental leave on looking behavior was analyzed. The results indicated that identity and experience of looking at others influences how infants discriminate emotions in pictures of facial expressions. Fourteen-month-old infants who had been with both parents in parental leave discriminated more emotional expressions in strangers than infants who only had one parent on leave. Further, they reacted with larger pupil dilation toward the parent who was actually in parental leave than to the parent not on leave. Finally, fearful emotional expressions were more broadly scanned than neutral or happy facial expressions.

The results of these studies indicate that infants discriminate between mothers’, fathers’ and strangers’ emotional facial expressions and use the other people’s expressions to regulate their behavior. In addition, a new method, a head-mounted camera was shown to capture infants’ looking behavior in “live” situations.

Public defence:
2012-03-29, Sal IV, Universitetshuset, Biskopsgatan 3, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Degree:
degree of Doctor of Philosophy
Supervisor:
Stenberg, Gunilla (Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology)
Gredebäck, Gustaf (Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology)
Opponent:
Melinder, Annika M.D. (University of Oslo, Department of Psychology)
Available from:
2012-03-07
Created:
2012-02-08
Last updated:
2012-03-29
Statistics:
612 hits
FILE INFORMATION
File size:
2978 kb
Mimetype:
application/pdf
Type:
fulltext
Statistics:
562 hits