Two conserved residues govern the salt and pH dependencies of the binding reaction of a PDZ domain
2006 (English)In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 281, no 48, 36811-36818 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
PDZ domains are protein-protein interaction modules found in hundreds of human proteins. Their binding reactions are sensitive to variations in salt and pH but the basis of the respective dependence has not been clear. We investigated the binding reaction between PSD-95 PDZ3 and a peptide corresponding to a native ligand with protein engineering in conjunction with stopped-flow and equilibrium fluorimetry and found that the two conserved residues Arg-318 and His-372 were responsible for the salt and pH dependencies, respectively. The basis of the salt-dependent variation of the affinity was explored by mutating all charged residues in and around the peptide-binding pocket. Arg-318 was found to be crucial, as mutation to alanine obliterated the effect of chloride on the binding constants. The direct interaction of chloride with Arg-318 was demonstrated by time-resolved urea denaturation experiments, where the Arg-318 --> Ala mutant was less stabilized by addition of chloride as compared with wild-type PDZ3. We also demonstrated that protonation of His-372 was responsible for the increase of the equilibrium dissociation constant at low pH. Both chloride concentration and pH (during ischemia) vary in the postsynaptic density, where PSD-95 is present, and the physiological buffer conditions may thus modulate the interaction between PSD-95 and its ligands through binding of chloride and protons to the "molecular switches" Arg-318 and His-372, respectively.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 281, no 48, 36811-36818 p.
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-22437DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M607883200ISI: 000242220800039PubMedID: 17018532OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-22437DiVA: diva2:50210