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Assessment of long-term and recent pesticide exposure among rural school children in Nicaragua
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2012 (English)In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 69, no 2, 119-125 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective This study assessed pesticide exposure of children in rural Nicaragua in relation to parental pesticide use, from around conception to current school age, as part of an epidemiological evaluation of neurodevelopment effects. Methods We included 132 children whose parents were subsistence farmers or plantation workers, or had an agricultural history. As proxies for children's long-term exposures, we constructed cumulative parental pesticide-specific use indices for periods before and after the child's birth from data obtained using an icon-calendar-based questionnaire, of application hours (h) for plantation workers and subsistence farmers, and of kilograms of active ingredients (ai) only for subsistence farmers. Pesticide residues of TCPY, 3-PBA and 2,4-D were analysed in children's urine as indicators for current exposures. Results Life-time indices were highest for the organophosphates chlorpyrifos (median 114 h (min 2; max 1584), 19.2 kg ai (min 0.37; max 548)) and methamidophos (84 h (6; 1964), 12.2 kg ai (0.30; 780)). The P50 values of children's urinary residues were 3.7 mu g/g creatinine for TCPY, 2.8 for 3-PBA and 0.9 for 2,4-D; TCPY values are comparable with those in other countries, but 3-PBA and 2,4-D are considerably higher. The maximum levels for all three pesticides are the highest reported for children. Residues increased on days after application, but most high residue levels were unrelated to parental pesticide applications. Conclusion Urinary pesticide residues reveal high environmental exposure among children in rural Nicaragua. The quantitative parental pesticide use indices as proxies for children's exposures during different periods may be useful for the evaluation of developmental health effects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 69, no 2, 119-125 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-168563DOI: 10.1136/oem.2010.062539ISI: 000299307700007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-168563DiVA: diva2:503300
Available from: 2012-02-15 Created: 2012-02-13 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Environmental Pesticide Exposure and Neurobehavioral Effects among Children of Nicaraguan Agricultural Workers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental Pesticide Exposure and Neurobehavioral Effects among Children of Nicaraguan Agricultural Workers
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Children exposed to pesticides are susceptible for neurodevelopmental disruption. Data from developing countries are scarce.

Aim: Assessing long-term and recent pesticide exposure in Nicaraguan children in relation to parental pesticide use and examining potential associated neurobehavioral effects.

Methods: In the first study, pre- and post-spraying urinary residues of the chlorpyrifos metabolite TCPY and diazinon metabolite IMPY were measured among 7 subsistence farmers and 10 plantation workers, and in one child per worker. In the second study, for 110 children in an agricultural village and 22 in a non-agricultural village, aged 7-9, parental pesticide use was assessed by hours of spraying and kilograms of active ingredients during pre-and-postnatal time windows, as proxies for children’s long term pesticide exposures. Urinary TCPY, 3-PBA (pyrethroid metabolite), and 2,4-D were determined in 211 samples of 74 children of the agricultural village. IQ components and total IQ (WISC-IV) were evaluated in all agricultural village children. Behavior was evaluated with the Conners’ Teacher Rating Scale-Revised: Short. Multivariate linear regression models assessed associations between long-term and recent exposure to organophosphates and pyrethroids and cognitive and behavioral scales.

Results: In study 1, post-spraying urinary levels of pesticide metabolites of subsistence farmers and their children were highly correlated (r=0.85), but not those of plantation workers and their children. In study 2, a wide range of exposures was reported by parents for all pesticides and time windows. The median urinary TCPY (3.7 μg/g creatinine), 3-PBA (2.8), and 2,4-D (0.9) were comparable to other studies for TCPY and 3-PBA but high for 2,4-D. Maximum levels were the highest reported for all compounds. Prenatal use of organophosphates affected working memory, and methamidophos also verbal comprehension and total IQ. Urinary TCPY was associated with poorer working memory. Organophosphate exposures were not associated with children’s behavior. Pyrethroid exposure during the first year of life associated with poorer perceptual reasoning and behavior, and urinary 3-PBA with a number of cognitive functions and ADHD in girls but not in boys.

Conclusion: Nicaraguan children in poor agricultural areas are highly exposed to pesticides, which is influenced by parental pesticide use in subsistence farms. Organophosphate and pyrethroid exposures adversely affect their neurobehavioral development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. 66 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 820
Keyword
pesticides, organophosphates, pyrethroids, children, cognitive function, behavioral outcomes, neurodevelopment
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-182164 (URN)978-91-554-8488-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-11-15, Frödingsalen, Ulleråkersvägen 40 A, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-10-24 Created: 2012-10-04 Last updated: 2013-01-23

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