Gender differences for associations between circulating levels of metals and coronary risk in the elderly
2012 (English)In: International journal of hygiene and environmental health (Print), ISSN 1438-4639, E-ISSN 1618-131X, Vol. 215, no 3, 411-417 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Several studies have pointed out associations between various metals and cardiovascular disease. Since cardiovascular disease prevalence is different between males and females, we investigated whether circulating levels of metals related differently to coronary risk in men and women. In the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, coronary risk was assessed by the Framingham Risk Score together with circulating blood levels of 11 different trace and heavy metals in 1016 subjects aged 70 years. Circulating levels of cadmium, copper and manganese were significantly higher in women than in men, while mercury, zinc and lead were significantly lower following adjustment for kidney function (measured by glomerular filtration rate, GFR). No significant differences between women and men were seen regarding levels of aluminium, molybdenum, cobalt, chromium and nickel. When all 11 metals were entered as independent variables together with GFR in multiple models in the Framingham Risk Score as the dependent variable, cadmium was the major determinant of the Framingham Risk Score in women (p<0.0001, followed by zinc p=0.03), while copper was the major determinant of the Framingham Risk Score in men (p<0.0001, followed by inverse relations vs. aluminium p=0.01 and nickel p=0.01). There are gender differences in levels of metals and also regarding the association between metals and coronary risk, with cadmium levels being most important for women and copper levels for men in this elderly population.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 215, no 3, 411-417 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-169553DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2011.11.004ISI: 000303960900021PubMedID: 22169700OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-169553DiVA: diva2:507262