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Influence of precursor sulfur content on film formation and compositional changes in Cu2ZnSnS4 films and solar cells
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
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2012 (English)In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 98, 110-117 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films are made using sulfurisation of co-sputtered metallic and sulfur-containing precursor films. The CZTS grain size is larger for metallic precursors than for sulfur-containing precursors while more uniform films with fewer voids are obtained in the latter case. During sulfurisation of precursors with tin-excess in closed quartz ampoules, tin is lost from the films with greater losses from metallic precursors. We suggest that the reduced grain size and the reduced tin-loss for sulfur-containing precursors can be explained by a larger number of CZTS nuclei being formed early in the sulfurisation process. In sulfur containing precursors with large tin excess, SnS2 is observed together with CZTS, and a tin-rich bottom layer segregates. This indicates that tin-diffusion in CZTS is relatively slow. Solar cell devices made for a range of compositions at and around stoichiometric CZTS show highest efficiencies in two compositional groups; Zn-rich and Cu-poor/Sn-rich, while close to stoichiometric material gives poor devices. Devices including the tin-rich bottom layer show efficiencies of up to 3.2%. The role of secondary phases such as ZnS and SnS2 on device performance is discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 98, 110-117 p.
Keyword [en]
CZTS, Kesterite, Sulfurisation, Solar cell
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-171401DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2011.10.019ISI: 000300536500014OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-171401DiVA: diva2:511134
Available from: 2012-03-20 Created: 2012-03-19 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved

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Platzer-Björkman, CharlotteScragg, JonathanKubart, TomasEdoff, Marika

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