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High-resolution three-dimensional probes of biomaterials and their interfaces
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
2012 (English)In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 370, no 1963, 1337-1351 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Interfacial relationships between biomaterials and tissues strongly influence the success of implant materials and their long-term functionality. Owing to the inhomogeneity of biological tissues at an interface, in particular bone tissue, two-dimensional images often lack detail on the interfacial morphological complexity. Furthermore, the increasing use of nanotechnology in the design and production of biomaterials demands characterization techniques on a similar length scale. Electron tomography (ET) can meet these challenges by enabling high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of biomaterial interfaces. In this article, we review the fundamentals of ET and highlight its recent applications in probing the three-dimensional structure of bioceramics and their interfaces, with particular focus on the hydroxyapatite-bone interface, titanium dioxide-bone interface and a mesoporous titania coating for controlled drug release.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 370, no 1963, 1337-1351 p.
Keyword [en]
electron tomography, interface, hydroxyapatite, bone, titanium dioxide, implant interface
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-171539DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2011.0253ISI: 000300631900004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-171539DiVA: diva2:511366
Available from: 2012-03-21 Created: 2012-03-21 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Nanoscale Osseointegration: Characterization of Biomaterials and their Interfaces with Electron Tomography
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanoscale Osseointegration: Characterization of Biomaterials and their Interfaces with Electron Tomography
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Bone response is one of the key determining factors in the overall success of biomaterials intended for bone regeneration and osseointegration. Understanding the formation of bone at an implant surface may lead to the improved design of biomaterials for the future. However, due to the inhomogeneity of bone tissue at an interface, two-dimensional images often lack detail on the interfacial complexity. Furthermore, the increasing use of nanotechnology in the design and production of biomaterials demands characterization techniques on a similar nano length scale.

While current analysis methods, such as X-ray tomography, transmission electron microscopy, focused ion beam microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, provide a basis for analysing biomaterials and biointerfaces, they are incapable of doing so with both nanometre resolution and three-dimensional clarity. In contrast, electron tomography may be used to characterize the three-dimensional structure of biomaterials and their interfaces to bone with nanometre resolution.

In this work, hydroxyapatite scaffolds, and laser-modified titanium and Ti6Al4V implants were studied in contact with human or rabbit bone. Z-contrast electron tomography revealed that the orientation of collagen in bone apposing hydroxyapatite, titanium and Ti6Al4V implants is consistently parallel to the implant surface, where the bioactive layer that precipitates on HA is oriented perpendicular to the implant surface. With this method, complete three-dimensional nanoscale osseointegration of titanium-based implants was also established.

The extension of this technique from interfacial analyses to the design of biomaterials provided an understanding of the pore structure of mesoporous titania. In further investigations, the open three-dimensional pore network, as revealed by electron tomography, showed promise as a coating that improves implant osseointegration and enables site-specific drug-delivery from an implant surface.

In summary, it was demonstrated that two-dimensional characterization techniques were insufficient for the investigation of nanostructured biomaterials, as well as their interfaces to bone. Visualizing biointerfaces and biomaterials with nanometre precision in three-dimensions can expose new fundamental information on materials properties and bone response, enabling better design of biomaterials for the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. 61 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 962
Keyword
Electron tomography, transmission electron microscopy, hydroxyapatite, titanium, titania, bone, implant, osseointegration, interface, mesoporous
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Materials Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-179445 (URN)978-91-554-8441-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-10-05, Polhemsalen, Ångström Laboratory, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-09-14 Created: 2012-08-15 Last updated: 2013-01-22Bibliographically approved

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Grandfield, KathrynEngqvist, Håkan

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