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Onset of mucosal, dermal, and general symptoms in relation to biomarkers and exposures in the dwelling: a cohort study from 1992 to 2002
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
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2012 (English)In: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 22, no 4, 331-338 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We examined the associations between biomarkers of allergy and inflammation, indoor environment in dwellings, and incidence and remission of symptoms included in the sick building syndrome (SBS) and changes in the home environment of 452 adults who were followed from 1992 to 2002 within the Uppsala part of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). The 10-year incidence (onset) of general, mucosal, and dermal symptoms was 8.5%, 12.7%, and 6.8%, respectively. Dampness or indoor molds at baseline was a predictor of incidence of general (relative risk [RR] = 1.98), mucosal (RR = 2.28), and dermal symptoms (RR = 1.91). Women had higher incidence of general (RR = 1.74) and mucosal symptoms (RR = 1.71). Indoor painting increased the incidence of general symptoms (RR = 1.62). Bronchial responsiveness (BR), eosinophil counts in blood, total IgE and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) in serum at baseline were predictors of incidence of SBS. At follow-up, BR, total IgE, and C-reactive protein (CRP ) were associated with increased incidence of SBS. Moreover, subjects with doctor-diagnosed asthma at baseline had a higher incidence of general (RR = 1.65) and mucosal symptoms (RR = 1.97). In conclusion, female gender, dampness or indoor molds, indoor painting, and biomarkers of allergy and inflammation were associated with a higher incidence of SBS symptoms, in particular mucosal symptoms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2012. Vol. 22, no 4, 331-338 p.
Keyword [en]
Biomarkers, Indoor environment, Longitudinal cohort study, Asthma, Sick building syndrome (SBS), Dwelling
National Category
Environmental Health and Occupational Health
Research subject
Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-172535DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0668.2012.00766.xISI: 000306223500008PubMedID: 22257085OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-172535DiVA: diva2:514899
Available from: 2012-04-11 Created: 2012-04-11 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Indoor Environment in Dwellings and Sick Building Syndrome (SBS): Longitudinal Studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indoor Environment in Dwellings and Sick Building Syndrome (SBS): Longitudinal Studies
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

People spend most of their time indoors and mostly in the dwelling. It is therefore important to investigate associations between indoor exposure in dwellings and health. Symptoms that may be related to the indoor environment are sometimes referred to as the "sick building syndrome" (SBS). SBS involves symptoms such as eye, skin and upper airway irritation, headache and fatigue. Three longitudinal studies and one prevalence study on personal and environmental risk factors for SBS in adults were performed. The prevalence study included measurements of indoor exposures in the dwellings. The longitudinal studies, with 8-10 years follow-up time, showed that smoking and indoor paint emissions were risk factors for SBS. Moreover, building dampness and moulds in dwellings were risk factors for onset (incidence) of general symptoms, skin symptoms and mucosal symptoms. In addition subjects living in damp dwellings have a lower remission of general symptoms and skin symptoms. Hay fever was a risk factor for onset of skin symptoms and mucosal symptoms, and asthma was a risk factor for onset of general and mucosal symptoms. Biomarkers of allergy and inflammation (bronchial reactivity, total IgE, ECP and eosinophil count) were predictors of onset of SBS symptoms, in particular mucosal symptoms. In the prevalence study, any SBS-symptom was associated with some individual volatile organic compounds of possible microbial origin (MVOC) e.g. 2-pentanol, 2-hexanon, 2-pentylfuran and 1-octen-3ol. Moreover, there were associations between indoor levels of formaldehyde and the plasticizer Texanol and any SBS. The result from the study indicates that individual MVOC are better indicators of SBS than the total value of MVOC. A final conclusion is that smoking, dampness and moulds and emissions from indoor painting may increase the onset of SBS. The indoor environment in dwellings over time has improved, but there is still a need for further improvements of the indoor environment in dwellings. More longitudinal SBS studies are needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. 63 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 783
Keyword
Indoor environment, sick building syndrome (SBS), dwelling, longitudinal cohort study, building dampness, mould, microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOC), biomarkers, asthma, risk factors
National Category
Environmental Health and Occupational Health
Research subject
Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-172769 (URN)978-91-554-8393-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-06-13, Frödingsalen, Ulleråkersvägen 40, Uppsala, 13:00 (Swedish)
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Available from: 2012-05-23 Created: 2012-04-13 Last updated: 2012-08-01Bibliographically approved

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Sahlberg, BoNorbäck, DanWieslander, GunillaJanson, Christer

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