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Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser
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2006 (English)In: Nature Physics, ISSN 1745-2473, E-ISSN 1745-2481, Vol. 2, no 12, 839-843 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Theory predicts(1-4) that, with an ultrashort and extremely bright coherent X-ray pulse, a single diffraction pattern may be recorded from a large macromolecule, a virus or a cell before the sample explodes and turns into a plasma. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of this principle using the FLASH soft-X-ray free-electron laser. An intense 25 fs, 4 x 10(13) W cm(-2) pulse, containing 10(12) photons at 32 nm wavelength, produced a coherent diffraction pattern from a nanostructured non-periodic object, before destroying it at 60,000 K. A novel X-ray camera assured single-photon detection sensitivity by filtering out parasitic scattering and plasma radiation. The reconstructed image, obtained directly from the coherent pattern by phase retrieval through oversampling(5-9), shows no measurable damage, and is reconstructed at the diffraction-limited resolution. A three-dimensional data set may be assembled from such images when copies of a reproducible sample are exposed to the beam one by one(10).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 2, no 12, 839-843 p.
National Category
Biological Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-24416DOI: 10.1038/nphys461ISI: 000242478000021OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-24416DiVA: diva2:52190
Available from: 2007-02-05 Created: 2007-02-05 Last updated: 2011-05-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Ultrafast Coherent X-ray Diffractive Nanoimaging
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ultrafast Coherent X-ray Diffractive Nanoimaging
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

X-ray lasers are creating unprecedented research opportunities in physics,chemistry and biology. The peak brightness of these lasers exceeds presentsynchrotrons by 1010, the coherence degeneracy parameters exceedsynchrotrons by 109, and the time resolution is 105 times better. In theduration of a single flash, the beam focused to a micron-sized spot has the samepower density as all the sunlight hitting the Earth, focused to a millimetresquare. Ultrafast coherent X-ray diffractive imaging (CXDI) with X-ray lasers exploitsthese unique properties of X-ray lasers to obtain high-resolution structures fornon-crystalline biological (and other) objects. In such an experiment, thesample is quickly vaporised, but not before sufficient scattered light can berecorded. The continuous diffraction pattern can then be phased and thestructure of a more or less undamaged sample recovered% (speed of light vs. speed of a shock wave).This thesis presents results from the first ultrafast X-ray diffractive imagingexperiments with linear accelerator-driven free-electron lasers and fromoptically-driven table-top X-ray lasers. It also explores the possibility ofinvestigating phase transitions in crystals by X-ray lasers. An important problem with ultrafast CXDI of small samples such as single proteinmolecules is that the signal from a single measurement will be small, requiringsignal enhancement by averaging over multiple equivalent samples. We present anumerical investigation of the problems, including the case where samplemolecules are not exactly identical, and propose tentative solutions. A new software package (Hawk) has been developed for data processing and imagereconstruction. Hawk is the first publicly available software package in thisarea, and it is released as an open source software with the aspiration offostering the development of this field.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2010. 49 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 731
XFEL, Phasing, Image Reconstruction, Single Particle Imaging, Ultrafast Diffraction, X-ray diffraction, Coherent Diffractive Imaging, CXDI
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-122002 (URN)978-91-554-7776-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-05-14, B41, BMC, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Available from: 2010-04-22 Created: 2010-04-05 Last updated: 2010-05-11Bibliographically approved

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van der Spoel, DavidBergh, MagnusCaleman, CarlHuldt, GöstaSeibert, MarvinMaia, FilipeLee, Richard W.Timneanu, NicusorHajdu, Janos
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