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Wireless Sensor Network and Radio Wave Propagation in Harsh Environments
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics. (Microwave Group)
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This licentiate thesis cover two important subjects regarding the application of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Both subjects are related to propagation mechanisms. The first subject is what the radio channel looks like and how it behaves. In this case three different, and extreme, environments are measured and characterized - a train, a half scale jet engine fan and a full scale military jet engine. The train environment is characterized by measure the path loss and fading over distance. For the case with the jet engines, difficulties were found to measure the path loss over distance, so in this case stationary antennas were used, but with the engine running. Each of these shows an extreme type of fading, also known as Rayleigh fading. For the case of jet engine at full speed (about 10 000 rpm), it was shown that the time between two consecutive fading dips where only 290 μs, which is about twice the length of a data package from the WSN involved in this project. The Rayleigh distributed amplitude fading occurs when there is a multipath environment, the radio waves propagate several different paths between the transmitter and receiver, which causes a superposition at the receiver. When having Rayleigh fading, the performance of the radio link is greatly reduced. When applying a WSN in this type of environment, the use of several antennas will improve the received power of the signal. This is done by adding extra antennas to a wireless system and in a clever way combine the signals, or select one of two signals from the antennas. In a book chapter and in a paper presented in the thesis, a new and low energy type of diversity is described. The performance of this new type of diversity is shown by having a two branch diversity and discretely shifting the phase of each branch before combining them. In this case, four relative phase shifts are performed during each symbol received. When performing a combining like this, the energy is saved by not having any decision circuitry. By using this type of diversity and using a 90 % signal reliability and an ideal environment, the diversity gain is 5.5 dB for an averaging detector and 10.3 dB for a peak detector.  The drawback with this system is that it is only limited for systems using simple types of amplitude (ASK) or frequency (FSK) modulation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Uppsala universitet , 2012.
Keyword [en]
Wireless Sensor Network, WISENET, Wave Propagation, Radio Communication, Harsh Environmnents
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microwave Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-173479OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-173479DiVA: diva2:523544
Presentation
2012-05-29, Polhemssalen, Ångströmlaboratioriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 14:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
WisenetWisejet
Available from: 2012-05-04 Created: 2012-04-25 Last updated: 2012-05-04Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Reliability Experiments for Wireless Sensor Networks in Train Environment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reliability Experiments for Wireless Sensor Networks in Train Environment
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2009 (English)In: European Microwave Week (EuMWeek), Second European Wireless Technology Conference, EuWIT, 2009, 37-40 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering with specialization in Signal Processing; Engineering Science with specialization in Microwave Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-120593 (URN)
Conference
European Microwave Week (EuMWeek), Second European Wireless Technology Conference, EuWIT
Projects
WISENET
Available from: 2010-03-15 Created: 2010-03-15 Last updated: 2016-04-14Bibliographically approved
2. Antenna diversity with opportunistic combining for ASk systems with single channel receivers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antenna diversity with opportunistic combining for ASk systems with single channel receivers
2010 (English)In: Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 2010, 1-5 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-138838 (URN)
Conference
Fourth European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP)
Projects
WISENET
Available from: 2010-12-20 Created: 2010-12-20 Last updated: 2016-04-18Bibliographically approved
3. Diversity Techniques for Robustness and Power Awareness in Wireless Sensor Systems for Railroad Transport Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diversity Techniques for Robustness and Power Awareness in Wireless Sensor Systems for Railroad Transport Applications
2011 (English)In: Sustainable Wireless Sensor Networks / [ed] Winston Seah and Yen Kheng Tan, InTech Open Publishers , 2011, 1, 75-95 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
InTech Open Publishers, 2011 Edition: 1
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159204 (URN)978-953-307-297-5 (ISBN)
Projects
wisenet
Available from: 2011-09-25 Created: 2011-09-25 Last updated: 2016-04-20Bibliographically approved
4. Wireless sensor networks for aircraft engines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wireless sensor networks for aircraft engines
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2011 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-138847 (URN)
Conference
Smart Systems Integration Conference, Dresden, Germany, 22-23.03.2011
Projects
wisenet
Available from: 2010-12-20 Created: 2010-12-20 Last updated: 2016-04-20Bibliographically approved
5. Measurements and Simulations of Wave Propagation for Wireless Sensor Networks in Jet Engine Turbines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurements and Simulations of Wave Propagation for Wireless Sensor Networks in Jet Engine Turbines
2011 (English)In: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, ISSN 1536-1225, E-ISSN 1548-5757, Vol. 10, 1139-1142 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this letter, measurements and simulations of wave propagation inside a jet engine fan have been performed. The investigation was done using both EM simulations of different cases of propagation inside the engine and by measuring the corresponding cases inside a half-scale model of a jet engine fan. The average path loss was calculated, and the shapes of the fading distributions were extracted. The time between two consecutive fading dips was measured in the empirical part. Measurements were performed with engine speeds of both 30 and 60 rpm and were shown to be linearly scalable from 60 rpm to full speed of 10 000 rpm. The results showed an average path loss of about 55 dB. When scaling the measurements from 60 rpm to full-speed rotation of about 10 000 rpm, the fading was so severe that the time slot between consecutive fading dips was limited to 290 mu s.

Keyword
Communication channels, electromagnetic propagation, propagation losses, radio communication, radiowave propagation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-161778 (URN)10.1109/LAWP.2011.2171309 (DOI)000296260200004 ()
Available from: 2011-11-21 Created: 2011-11-17 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved

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