Structural elucidation of phase I and II metabolites of bupivacaine in horse urine and fungi of the Cunninghamella species using liquid chromatography/multi-stage mass spectrometry
2012 (English)In: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, ISSN 0951-4198, E-ISSN 1097-0231, Vol. 26, no 11, 1338-1346 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
RATIONALE: Bupivacaine is a local anaesthetic prohibited in equine sports. It is highly metabolized in the horse but a thorough description of its metabolite profile is lacking. An administration study should find appropriate analytical targets for doping control. Furthermore, knowledge of an in vitro system for production of metabolites would be beneficial.
METHODS: Marcain® (bupivacaine hydrochloride) was administered subcutaneously to a horse and urine samples were collected. In vitro metabolic systems consisting of the fungi Cunninghamella elegans and Cunninghamella blakesleeana were incubated with bupivacaine and bupivacaine-d9. Samples were analyzed directly after dilution or cleaned up using liquid-liquid extraction. Separation was achieved with liquid chromatography. Mass spectrometric analysis was performed using positive electrospray ionization with both a tandem quadrupole and an ion trap instrument using MSn and hydrogen/deuterium exchange.
RESULTS: In horse urine, seven phase I metabolites were found: 3'- and 4'-hydroxybupivacaine, N-desbutylbupivacaine, two aliphatically hydroxylated metabolites, one N-oxide, and dihydroxybupivacaine. Sulfated hydroxybupivacaine and glucuronides of 3'- and 4'-hydroxybupivacaine and of dihydroxybupivacaine were also detected. All these metabolites were previously undescribed in the horse, except for 3'-hydroxybupivacaine. 3'- and 4'-Hydroxybupivacaine were designated as appropriate targets for doping control. Interestingly, all the equine phase I metabolites were also detected in the samples from C. elegans and C. blakesleeana.
CONCLUSIONS: The qualitative aspects of the metabolism of bupivacaine in the horse have been investigated with many novel metabolites described. The fungi C. elegans and C. blakesleeana have proven to be relevant models for mammalian metabolism of bupivacaine and they may in the future be used to produce analytical reference materials.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 26, no 11, 1338-1346 p.
Medicinal Chemistry Analytical Chemistry
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-173545DOI: 10.1002/rcm.6225ISI: 000303597100009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-173545DiVA: diva2:523823