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Hematological: Low all-cause mortality and low occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in hematological patients with bacteremia receiving no antibacterial prophylaxis: a single-center study
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. (Hematologi)
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2012 (English)In: European Journal of Haematology, ISSN 0902-4441, E-ISSN 1600-0609, Vol. 88, no 5, 422-430 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Bacteremia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with hematological malignancies.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to define temporal trends in species distribution, antimicrobial susceptibility, and all-cause mortality in bacteremic hospitalized patients receiving no antibacterial prophylaxis during chemotherapy-induced neutropenia.

Methods: A total of 677 clinical episodes of bacteremia were identified in 463 patients during 2002-2008, and the results were compared with those published from the same institution during 1980-86 and 1988-2001. No major changes in patient selection were introduced during this period.

Results: Between 2002 and 2008, the dominating pathogens were Escherichia coli (18%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (15%), viridans streptococci (14%), Klebsiella spp. (10%), and Enterococcus faecium (8%). The 7-d crude mortality rate was 5.2%. Polymicrobial bacteremia was seen in 25.7% of the patients who died within 7 d and in 13.1% of the survivors (P = 0.04). Acquired resistance was rarely observed, but a statistically significant increase in ciprofloxacin resistance in E. coli was observed. Comparing 2002-2008 with historical data from the same institution, the proportion of Gram-positive isolates remained stable at 53-55% from 1988.

Conclusions: The avoidance of fluoroquinolone prophylaxis may have contributed to a stable proportion of Gram-positive bacteremia. The crude mortality was low in an international perspective. Acquired resistance was uncommon, but ciprofloxacin resistance in E. coli increased significantly. We believe that an indiscriminate use of antibacterial prophylaxis could be avoided in neutropenic patients without a negative impact on mortality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 88, no 5, 422-430 p.
Keyword [en]
bloodstream infection, hematological malignancy, antimicrobial resistance, hospital epidemiology, polymicrobial bacteremia, temporal trend
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-173964DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0609.2012.01768.xISI: 000302612200007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-173964DiVA: diva2:526651
Available from: 2012-05-14 Created: 2012-05-09 Last updated: 2012-05-14Bibliographically approved

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Cherif, Honar
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