Anal sphincter lacerations and upright delivery postures - a risk analysis from a randomized controlled trial
2007 (English)In: International Urogynecology Journal, ISSN 0937-3462, E-ISSN 1433-3023, Vol. 18, no 2, 141-146 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate obstetric sphincter lacerations after a kneeling or sitting position at second stage of labor in a multivariate risk analysis model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and seventy-one primiparous women with normal pregnancies and spontaneous labor were randomized, 138 to a kneeling position and 133 to a sitting position. Medical data were retrieved from delivery charts and partograms. Risk factors were tested in a multivariate logistic regression model in a stepwise manner. RESULTS: The trial was completed by 106 subjects in the kneeling group and 112 subjects in the sitting group. There were no significant differences with regard to duration of second stage of labor or pre-trial maternal characteristics between the two groups. Obstetrical sphincter tears did not differ significantly between the two groups but an intact perineum was more common in the kneeling group (p<0.03) and episiotomy (mediolateral) was more common in the sitting group (p<0.05). Three grade IV sphincter lacerations occurred in the sitting group compared to none in the kneeling group (NS). Multivariate risk analysis indicated that prolonged duration of second stage of labor and episiotomy were associated with an increased risk of third- or fourth-degree sphincter tears (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). Delivery posture, maternal age, fetal weight, use of oxytocin, and use of epidural analgesia did not increase the risk of obstetrical anal sphincter lacerations in the two upright postures. CONCLUSION: Obstetrical anal sphincter lacerations did not differ significantly between a kneeling or sitting upright delivery posture. Episiotomy was more common after a sitting delivery posture, which may be associated with an increased risk of anal sphincter lacerations. Upright delivery postures may be encouraged in healthy women with normal, full-term pregnancy.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 18, no 2, 141-146 p.
Anal sphincter, Laceration, Delivery, Upright
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-24949DOI: 10.1007/s00192-006-0123-9ISI: 000243189500004PubMedID: 16636770OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-24949DiVA: diva2:52723