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Optimisation of a Swedish district heating system with reduced heat demand due to energy efficiency measures inr esidential buildings
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Mechanics. (Built Environment Energy Systems Group (BEESG))
(Optensys Energianalys AB)
2011 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 12, 7839-7852 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The development towards more energy efficient buildings, as well as the expansion of district heating (DH) networks, is generally considered to reduce environmental impact. But the combined effect of these two progressions is more controversial. A reduced heat demand (HD) due to higher energy efficiency in buildings might hamper co-production of electricity and DH. InSweden,co-produced electricity is normally considered to displace electricity from less efficient European condensing power plants. In this study, a potential HD reduction due to energy efficiency measures in the existing building stock in the Swedish city Linkoping is calculated. The impact of HD reduction on heat and electricity production in the Linkoping DH system is investigated by using the energy system optimisation model MODEST. Energy efficiency measures in buildings reduce seasonal HD variations. Model results show that HD reductions primarily decrease heat-only production.The electricity-to-heat output ratio for the system is increased for HD reductions up to 30%. Local and global CO2 emissions are reduced. If co-produced electricity replaces electricity from coal-fired condensing power plants, a 20% HD reduction is optimal for decreasing global CO2 emissions in the analysed DH system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2011. Vol. 39, no 12, 7839-7852 p.
Keyword [en]
Low-energy residentialbuildings District heating Energy efficiencymeasures
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Engineering Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-176404DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2011.09.031OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-176404DiVA: diva2:535131
Available from: 2012-06-19 Created: 2012-06-19 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. District Heating Sensitivity to Heat Demand Reductions and Electricity Market Dynamics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>District Heating Sensitivity to Heat Demand Reductions and Electricity Market Dynamics
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Sweden and the rest of the EU member states have to reduce primary energy use andemissions of CO2, and increase the use of renewable energy sources according to the EUclimate change package “20-20-20”. To do this, the energy systems need to use less fossilfuel and to utilise energy resources more efficiently. Reduction of energy use in buildings isan important part of this transformation. In Sweden, district heating is the most commontechnique to supply heat for space heating and domestic hot water to multi-family residentialbuildings in urban areas. Efficiency improvements in buildings connected to district heatingsystems should not be counterproductive from a systems perspective, e.g. causing lessefficient total use of resources and increased global CO2 emissions. A reduced electricityproduction in combined heat and power plants, which may be a result of reduced districtheating demand, is sometimes seen as problematic with regards to emissions of CO2, sincethis electricity is normally considered to replace electricity produced in less efficient fossilfuelledcondensing power plants.This licentiate thesis summarises the first part of a PhD project that studies thepossibilities for Swedish district heating systems to adapt to a reduced demand for heating inbuildings, as well as to changes in energy markets. In this thesis the impact of buildingenergy-efficiency improvements and electricity market dynamics on the operation of districtheating systems and CO2 emissions is investigated.The energy system cost-optimisation software MODEST has been used to study theimpact of heat demand changes on the heat and electricity production in the Swedish districtheating systems in Linköping and Uppsala. MODEST optimisations were also used toinvestigate the impact of electricity price fluctuations on the operation of the Uppsaladistrict heating system, and the interaction between the national power system and allSwedish district heating systems collectively.The results show that energy efficiency improvements in buildings that reduce heatdemand by up to 40 % do not increase global CO2 emissions due to production of districtheating. This is because heat-only production is reduced to a larger extent than combinedheat and power production. The results also show that low electricity prices during winterand a large introduction of intermittent wind and solar power generation in the Swedishpower system can be expected to induce use of electricity for district heat production and tohamper co-generation of electricity in combined heat and power plants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala universitet, 2012. 68 p.
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Engineering Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-176407 (URN)
Presentation
2012-01-16, Å2002, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-06-27 Created: 2012-06-19 Last updated: 2012-06-27Bibliographically approved

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