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Crustal CO2 liberation during the 2006 eruption and earthquake events at Merapi volcano, Indonesia
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
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2012 (English)In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 39, L11302- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High-temperature volcanic gas is widely considered to originate from ascending, mantle-derived magma. In volcanic arc systems, crustal inputs to magmatic gases mainly occur via subducted sediments in the mantle source region. Our data from Merapi volcano, Indonesia imply, however, that during the April-October 2006 eruption significant quantities of CO2 were added from shallow crustal sources. We show that prior to the 2006 events, summit fumarole gas delta C-13((CO2)) is virtually constant (delta C-13(1994-2005) = -4.1 +/- 0.3 parts per thousand), but during the 2006 eruption and after the shallow Yogyakarta earthquake of late May, 2006 (M6.4; hypocentres at 10-15 km depth), carbon isotope ratios increased to -2.4 +/- 0.2 parts per thousand. This rise in delta C-13 is consistent with considerable addition of crustal CO2 and coincided with an increase in eruptive intensity by a factor of similar to 3 to 5. We postulate that this shallow crustal volatile input supplemented the mantle-derived volatile flux at Merapi, intensifying and sustaining the 2006 eruption. Late-stage volatile additions from crustal contamination may thus provide a trigger for explosive eruptions independently of conventional magmatic processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 39, L11302- p.
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-176812DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051307ISI: 000304772800002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-176812DiVA: diva2:537732
Available from: 2012-06-27 Created: 2012-06-26 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Magma-Crust Interaction at Subduction Zone Volcanoes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magma-Crust Interaction at Subduction Zone Volcanoes
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The focus of this work is magma-crust interaction processes and associated crustal volatile release in subduction zone volcanoes, drawing on rock, mineral, and gas geochemistry as well as experimental petrology. Understanding the multitude of differentiation processes that modify an original magma during ascent to the surface is vital to unravel the contributions of the various sources that contribute to the final magmas erupted at volcanoes. In particular, magma-crust interaction (MCI) processes have been investigated at a variety of scales, from a local scale in the Vesuvius, Merapi, and Kelut studies, to a regional scale, in the Java to Bali segment of the Sunda Arc.

 The role of crustal influences is still not well constrained in subduction systems, particulary in terms of the compositional impact of direct magma crust interplay. To address this shortcoming, we studied marble and calc-silicate (skarn) xenoliths, and used high resolution short timescale experimental petrology at Vesuvius volcano. The marbles and calc-silicates help to identify different mechanisms of magma-carbonate and magma-xenolith interaction, and the subsequent effects of volatile release on potential eruptive behaviour, while sequential short-duration experiments simulate the actual processes of carbonate assimilation employing natural materials and controlled magmatic conditions. The experiments highlight the efficiency of carbonate assimilation and associated carbonate-derived CO2 liberated over short timescales.

The findings at Merapi and Kelut demonstrate a complex magmatic plumbing system underneath these volcanoes with magma residing at different depths, spanning from the mantle-crust boundary to the upper crust. The erupted products and volcanic gas emissions enable us to shed light on MCI-processes and associated volatile release in these systems. The knowledge gained from studying individual volcanoes (e.g., Merapi and Kelut) is then tested on a regional scale and applied to the entire Java and Bali arc segment. An attempt is presented to distinguish the extent of source versus crustal influences and establish a quantitative model of late stage crustal influence in this arc segment.

This thesis therefore hopes to contribute to our knowledge of magma genesis and magma-crust interaction (MCI) processes that likely operate in subduction zone systems worldwide.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. 40 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1037
Keyword
magma-crust interaction, stable isotopes (O-C), radiogenic isotopes (Sr-Nd-Pb), calc-silicate xenoliths, HP-HT experimental petrology, crustal volatiles, Vesuvius, Merapi, Kelut, the Sunda arc
National Category
Geology Geochemistry
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-198085 (URN)978-91-554-8648-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-05-24, Hambergsalen, Geocentrum, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-05-03 Created: 2013-04-08 Last updated: 2013-08-30

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Troll, Valentin R.Jolis, Ester M.Blythe, Lara S.Deegan, Frances M.

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