Current asthma and respiratory symptoms among pupils in Shanghai, China: influence of building ventilation, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and formaldehyde in classrooms
2006 (English)In: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 16, no 6, 454-464 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
We investigated 10 naturally ventilated schools in Shanghai, in winter. Pupils (13-14 years) in 30 classes received a questionnaire, 1414 participated (99%). Classroom temperatures were 13-21 degrees C (mean 17 degrees C), relative air humidity was 36-82% (mean 56%). The air exchange rate was 2.9-29.4 ac/h (mean 9.1), because of window opening. Mean CO2 exceeded 1000 ppm in 45% of the classrooms. NO2 levels were 33-85 mu g/m(3) indoors, and 45-80 mu g/m(3) outdoors. Ozone were 1-9 mu g/m(3) indoors and 17-28 mu g/m(3) outdoors. In total, 8.9% had doctors' diagnosed asthma, 3.1% wheeze, 23.0% daytime breathlessness, 2.4% current asthma, and 2.3% asthma medication. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Observed indoor molds was associated with asthma attacks [odds ratio (OR) = 2.40: P < 0.05]. Indoor temperature was associated with daytime breathlessness (OR = 1.26 for 1 C; P < 0.001), and indoor CO2 with current asthma (OR = 1.18 for 100 ppm; P < 0.01) and asthma medication (OR = 1.15 for 100 ppm; P < 0.05). Indoor NO2 was associated with current asthma (OR = 1.51 for 10 mu g/m(3); P < 0.01) and asthma medication (OR = 1.45 for 10 mu g/m(3); P < 0.01). Outdoor NO2 was associated with current asthma (OR = 1.44 for 10 mu g/m(3); P < 0.05). Indoor and outdoor ozone was negatively associated with daytime breathlessness. In conclusion, asthma symptoms among pupils in Shanghai can be influenced by lack of ventilation and outdoor air pollution from traffic.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 16, no 6, 454-464 p.
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-26031DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0668.2006.00439.xISI: 000241832600006PubMedID: 17100666OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-26031DiVA: diva2:53805