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Bristly versus juicy: Phylogenetic position and taxonomy of Sphaerocoma (Caryophyllaceae)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
2012 (English)In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 61, no 1, 67-75 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The phylogenetic position of the Afro-Asian genus Sphaerocoma is investigated using DNA sequences from plastid rps16 and ndhF, as well as from nuclear ITS and RPB2. Seven accessions of Sphaerocoma, representing all three currently recognized taxa, are analyzed along with sequences from genera that have been found to be closely related to Sphaerocoma in broader studies of Caryophyllaceae. The Afro-Arabian Pollichia is indicated as sister to Sphaerocoma, and this Sphaerocoma-Pollichia clade is sister to a clade with Macaronesian Polycarpaea and the widely distributed Polycarpon prostratum. A close relationship between the anemochorous Sphaerocoma and the endozoochorous Pollichia has never previously been suggested, but some similarities in, e.g., floral characters are pointed out. Sphaerocoma is strongly supported as monophyletic, but no significant molecular variation within the genus could be detected. A new taxonomy of Sphaerocoma is proposed, where a single species with two geographically and morphologically defined subspecies are recognized: S. hookeri subsp. hookeri in coastal areas along the Red Sea in Egypt, Sudan and Saudi-Arabia, near Aden in Yemen, and in Somalia, and S. hookeri subsp. aucheri comb. & stat. nov. in coastal areas in south-eastern Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Iran, and Pakistan. A lectotype is designated for S. hookeri.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 61, no 1, 67-75 p.
Keyword [en]
Africa, Arabia, Caryophyllaceae, molecular phylogenetics, Pollichia, Polycarpaea, Sphaerocoma, taxonomy, typification
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-177876ISI: 000305357100005OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-177876DiVA: diva2:541571
Available from: 2012-07-19 Created: 2012-07-19 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Desert Plants and Deserted Islands: Systematics and Ethnobotany in Caryophyllaceae
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Desert Plants and Deserted Islands: Systematics and Ethnobotany in Caryophyllaceae
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background. Caryophyllaceae is a large and cosmopolitic flowering plant family, however the systematics of many of its basal groups has been unclear, due to a lack of unambiguous morphology. Some members of Caryophyllaceae are used medicinally, e.g. Corrigiola roots in Morocco. Monitoring the trade in medicinal plants is complicated due to the absence of useful identification characters in plant products such as roots, bark, and powders.

This thesis aims at elucidating the systematics and the ethnobotany of some of the basal clades in Caryophyllaceae. Methods. A comprehensive sampling from herbarium as well as market and field collected material was used in systematic studies combining morphological investigation, molecular phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses. Results. The data show that Polycarpon is polyphyletic, that Sphaerocoma is sister to Pollichia and shows some intraspecific variation, that Sanctambrosia falls within the genus Spergularia, and that both Spergula and Spergularia are monophyletic. Preliminary data suggest that Polycarpaea is polyphyletic and should be split into three larger and several smaller genera, that the members of Paronychia subgen. Anaplonychia will need to be transferred to Herniaria to maintain monophyly, and that Caryophyllaceae emerged during the Paleocene. All the major extant lineages originated in the Oligocene and diversified later. Using molecular identification it was possible to identify around 50% of the Moroccan medicinal roots to species level and an additional 30% to genus level. Discussion and conclusions. The polyphyletic Polycarpon needs to be split into at least three separate genera, but no name changes were made pending further research. The two species of Sphaerocoma were merged into one species with two subspecies. The San Ambrosio Island endemic Sanctambrosia, the only tree-like plant in Caryophyllaceae, is probably the result of a long distance dispersal event and its woody habit and gynodioecy are probably caused by inbreeding depression. Sanctambrosia manicata is transferred to Spergularia. Molecular identification put into practice on traded medicinal roots has a somewhat lower success rate than most theoretical studies, indicating that a global barcoding database would need to include reference sequences from a broad range of populations for each species.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. 52 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 972
Keyword
BEAST, Corrigiola, DNA barcoding, Morocco, Pollichia, Polycarpon, Polycarpaea, RAxML, Sanctambrosia, Spergula, Spergularia, Sphaerocoma
National Category
Biological Sciences Botany Biological Systematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-179853 (URN)978-91-554-8471-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-10-26, Lindahlsalen, Norbyvägen 18, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-10-04 Created: 2012-08-24 Last updated: 2013-04-02

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Kool, AnneleenPerrigo, AllisonThulin, Mats

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