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Corrosion Resistances and Passivation of Powder Metallurgical and Conventionally Cast 316L and 2205 Stainless Steels
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry. (Structural chemistry)
Erasteel Kloster AB, Box 100, Söderfors SE-815 82, Sweden.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry. (Structural chemistry)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
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2013 (English)In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 67, 268-280 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The corrosion resistances and passivation of austenitic 316L and duplex 2205 powder metallurgical (P/M) steels, produced by employing gas atomizing and hot isostatic pressing (HIP), have been compared with those of their conventional cast and forged counterparts. The P/M 316L steel is shown to have a significantly higher pitting corrosion resistance than the conventional 316L steel in 0.5 M HCl. Since the chemical composition and the total amount of inclusions were analogous for the two steels, the effect is ascribed to the finer grained microstructure for the P/M 316L steel yielding a better passive layer. This is supported by photoelectron spectroscopy data demonstrating differences between the thickness and composition of the passive layers for the two 316 L steels. Differences in the passivation process were also found for the different steels as three mixed potentials were observed in the polarization curves for the P/M and conventional 316L steels whereas only one mixed potential at about +0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl was observed for the two duplex steels in 0.5 M HCl. The results indicate that discussions of the shapes of polarization curves and mixed potentials should be based on the anodic and cathodic partial currents, including the reduction of oxygen. HIP:ed P/M steels are clearly well-suited for applications requiring high pitting corrosion resistances.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 67, 268-280 p.
Keyword [en]
steels, passivation, polarization curve, pitting, corrosion resistance, corrosion potential, hydrochloric acid
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Research subject
Chemistry with specialization in Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-179398DOI: 10.1016/j.corsci.2012.10.021ISI: 000313917700029OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-179398DiVA: diva2:544491
Available from: 2012-08-14 Created: 2012-08-14 Last updated: 2017-12-07
In thesis
1. Depth Profiling of the Passive Layer on Stainless Steel using Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Depth Profiling of the Passive Layer on Stainless Steel using Photoelectron Spectroscopy
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The physical properties of the protective passive films formed on the surface of stainless steels under electrochemical polarization in different electrolytes were studied. The structure of these films was analyzed as a function of depth using photoelectron spectroscopy (PES).

Depth profiling (using PES) of the surface layer was achieved by either changing the angle of incidence to achieve different analysis depths (ARXPS), by argon ion etching, or by varying the energy of the incoming x-rays by the use of synchrotron radiation. The use of hard x-rays with high resolution (HAXPES) provided novel quantified information about the nickel content underneath the passive films.

A complex environment was found in these surface layers composed of an outermost monolayer of iron on top of a layer of chromium hydroxides covering an underlayer of chromium oxides. Molybdenum was enriched in the interface between the metal and oxide. Nickel is enriched underneath the passive film and therefore nickeloxides are only present in the surface layer in low concentrations.

A comparison was performed on austenitic and duplex stainless prepared by hot isostatically pressed (HIP) or cast and forged processes. HIP stainless steel was produced using the burgeoning technique of pressing gas atomized powders together. The structure of these steels is far more homogenous with a lower porosity than that of the conventionally prepared equivalents. It was shown that hot HIP austenitic steel had better pitting corrosion resistance than its conventional counterpart.

Finally, the duplex steel was cycled in a Li-ion battery to explore its potential application as a current collector. It was shown that the passive film formed in the organic solvents is similar in composition and thickness to the films formed in aqueous solutions. However, it is doubtful if steel could be used as current collector in batteries due to its high reactivity with lithium.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. 69 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 955
Keyword
depth profile, stainless steel, passive film, XPS, HAXPES, corrosion, powder metallurgical
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Research subject
Chemistry with specialization in Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-179399 (URN)978-91-554-8430-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-09-28, Å2005, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
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Available from: 2012-09-05 Created: 2012-08-14 Last updated: 2013-01-22

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Edström, KristinaBjörefors, FredrikNyholm, Leif

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