uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Iron production in Iceland - metallurgic analyses of iron and slag from four sites in Iceland
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
2006 (English)In: Geoarchaeology 2006. University of Exeter. September 10th-14th 2006 / [ed] Brown T., Carey C. & Basell L., 2006Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

During excavations at sites in Iceland, samples of slag and iron was selected for advanced metallurgic analyses. The aim of the project is to increase the understanding and knowledge of iron production and metal work in Iceland during Viking Age and medieval time. Samples from four sites have been investigated so far: the Viking age and early medieval house Hofstaðir in Garðabæ, the medival turf house at Keldur in Ragnarvöllum and early medieval harbour Kolkuós and churchyard in Keldudalur in Skagafjördur. All samples was analysed at Geoarchaeological Laboratory (GAL) in Uppsala, Sweden.

The samples from Hofstaðir í Garðabæ is connected to a smithy process from which there are traces in the form of microscopic hammer scale. Similar processes was concluded through hammer scale remains in the medival turf house Keldur in Ragnarvöllum and together with results from insect analyses at Keldur it could be concluded that a living room during a period had been used as smithy or for iron work. The material from the medieval harbour Kolkuós in Skagafjördur was complex and it could not be concluded if there had been any smithy, iron work activity or similar at the place, even though boat building and repairmen was interpreted.

An interesting result, from both, Hofstaðir, Keldur and the early medieval churchyard Keldudalur in Skagafjördur, was the presence of bone or calcium and phosphor in the samples. In the example Keldur bone was probably added in the production to make the iron harder for the progress in the iron making process.

But in the bone material found in samples from the other sites, Hofstaðir and Keldudalur, it is clear that bone most probably was used as fuel in the process of iron production. In that time wood got rare in Iceland because of the expansion of the colonisation. In the northern part of the country there are resources in drift wood coming with sea currents, but this is not the case on southern Iceland to the same extent Therefore, there is a lack of wood for charcoal production. Tests have shown that equal parts of wood and bone as fuel makes almost the same effect in fire.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006.
Keyword [en]
Slag, Iron, Hoftadir, Keldudalur, Hólar, Iceland
National Category
Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Quaternary Geology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-179444OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-179444DiVA: diva2:544667
Conference
Geoarchaeology 2006
Projects
Holar project, Hólaransoknin, Hólaskóli, Iceland
Available from: 2012-08-15 Created: 2012-08-15

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Authority records BETA

Hellqvist, Magnus

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Hellqvist, Magnus
By organisation
Department of Earth Sciences
Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

urn-nbn

Altmetric score

urn-nbn
Total: 417 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf