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Time Series-, Time-Frequency- and Spectral Analyses of Sensor Measurements in an Offshore Wave Energy Converter Based on Linear Generator Technology
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
(English)In: Energy and Power Engineering, ISSN 1949-243XArticle in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

The second wave energy converter (WEC) prototype launched at the Lysekil research site on the Swedish west coast in March 2009 contained a number of sensor systems for measuring the mechanical performance of the WEC and mechanical subsystems within the WEC. Measurements were carried out during the first experimental period starting from May 15th and ending on September 23rd. One of the measurement systems was a set-up of 7 laser triangulation sensors for measuring relative displacement of the piston rod mechanical lead-through transmission in the direct drive. Investigation into the measurements in the time domain with close-ups, in the frequency domain with Fast Fourier transform (FFT) and with time-frequency analysis with short time Fourier transform (STFT) is carried out to map the spectral content in the measurements. End stop impact is clearly visible in the time-frequency analysis. The FFT magnitude spectra are investigated for identifying the cogging bandwidth among other vibrations. Two measurement periods separated by 2.5 month are presented to be able to draw conclusion on what happens with time. Comparisons and correlations are made between different sensors measuring simultaneously, especially for the laser triangulation sensor measurements. Noise levels are investigated. Filtering is discussed for further refinement of the laser triangulation sensor signals in order to separate noise from actual physical displacement and vibration. Measurements are presented from the relative displacement of the piston rod mechanical lead-through, from magnetic flux in the air gap, mechanical strain in the WEC structure, translator position and piston rod axial displacement and active AC power. Generator cogging, fluctuations in the damping force and in the Lorenz forces in the stator are distinguished and varies depending on translator speed. Vibrations from cogging seem to be present in the early measurement period while not so prominent in the late measurement period in August. Vibrations frequencies due to wear is possible from comparing with the noise at generator standstill and the vibration sources in the generator. It is concluded that a moving average is sufficient filter in the time domain for further analysis of the relative displacement of the piston rod mechanical lead-through transmission.

Keyword [en]
wave energy converter, linear generator, sensor measurements, spectral analysis, cogging, filtering, laser triangulation sensor, draw-wire sensor, force transducer, strain gauges, search coils, power generation
National Category
Ocean and River Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-179733OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-179733DiVA: diva2:545951
Projects
The Lysekil Wave Power Project
Available from: 2012-08-21 Created: 2012-08-21 Last updated: 2012-09-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Submerged Transmission in Wave Energy Converters: Full Scale In-Situ Experimental Measurements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Submerged Transmission in Wave Energy Converters: Full Scale In-Situ Experimental Measurements
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Different wave power technologies are in development around the world in different stages of prototype testing. So far only a few devices have been deployed offshore at full scale for extended periods of time. Little data is published about how these different devices perform.

This thesis presents results from experiments with the full-scale offshore wave energy converters at the Lysekil research site on the Swedish west coast. The theories, experiments, measurements, performance evaluations and developments of the submerged transmission in the direct driven permanent magnet linear generator are in focus. The reciprocating submerged transmission fulfills the purpose of transmitting the absorbed mechanical wave energy through the capsule wall into the generator, while preventing the seawater from entering the capsule and reducing the life time of the converter.

A measuring system with seven laser triangulation sensors has been developed to measure small relative displacements between piston rod and seal housing in the submerged transmission with excellent accuracy for the purpose of evaluating both functional behavior and successive wear in-situ. A method for calculating relative tilt angles, azimuth angles, differential tilt angles, and successive wear in the submerged transmission has been developed. Additional sensors systems have been installed in the converter enabling correlation and a thorough investigation into the operating conditions of the transmission and the converter. The thesis presents unique results from the measurements. A data acquisition system transmits the signals from the converter on the seabed to an onshore measuring station. Results are presented in time-, frequency- and the time-frequency domain.

The results have given important information for further development of the submerged transmission, which is important to the survivability of the system. The thesis describes the status of research, and is a step that may influence future designs of wave energy devices for reaching survivability and a cost-effective renewable energy system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. 214 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 961
Keyword
Wave energy converter, direct drive, submerged transmission, piston rod, seal housing, sealing system, laser triangulation sensor, offshore measurements, relative displacement, vibrations, tilt angle, tilting, wear estimation.
National Category
Energy Systems Marine Engineering Ocean and River Engineering Energy Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-179740 (URN)978-91-554-8440-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-09-14, Polhemssalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
The Lysekil Wave Power Project
Note

Published is a preprint version of the full text and should be combined by the errata.

Available from: 2012-08-24 Created: 2012-08-21 Last updated: 2013-01-22Bibliographically approved

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Strömstedt, Erland

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