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The oldest brachiopods from the lower Cambrian of South Australia
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
Department of Palaeozoology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
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2013 (English)In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 58, no 1, 93-109 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The morphology and organophosphatic shell structure of the paterinate brachiopod Askepasma is documented using new and previously collected specimens from the lower Cambrian of South Australia. Lack of adequately preserved material has seen the majority of paterinate specimens previously reported from South Australia referred to the genus Askepasma and treated under open nomenclature. Large collections of paterinates from the lower Cambrian Wilkawillina, Ajax, and Wirrapowie limestones in the Arrowie Basin, South Australia have prompted redescription of the type species Askepasma toddense and the erection of a new species, Askepasma saproconcha sp. nov. Askepasma saproconcha sp. nov. currently represents the oldest known brachiopod from the lower Cambrian successions in South Australia with a FAD in pre-trilobitic (Terreneuvian, Cambrian Stage 2, lower Atdabanian) strata in the basal part of the Wilkawillina and Wirrapowie limestones. Askepasma toddense predominantly occurs in Abadiella huoi Zone equivalent strata (Unnamed Cambrian Series 2, Stage 3, middle upper Atdabanian) in the upper part of the lower Wilkawillina, Wirrapowie, and Ajax limestones. The shell microstructure of Askepasma suggests a proximal stem group position within the Brachiopoda and similarities with tommotiid taxa provides further evidence that the ancestry of crown group brachiopods is firmly entrenched within the Tommotiida.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 58, no 1, 93-109 p.
Keyword [en]
Brachiopoda, Tommotiida, Paterinida, Askepasma, microstructure, Flinders
National Category
Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Geology Evolutionary Biology
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Historical Geology and Palaeontology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-180189DOI: 10.4202/app.2011.0146ISI: 000318462900009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-180189DiVA: diva2:548675
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012–1658
Available from: 2013-03-13 Created: 2012-08-31 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Early Cambrian Problematic Lophotrochozoans and Dilemmas of Scleritome Reconstructions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early Cambrian Problematic Lophotrochozoans and Dilemmas of Scleritome Reconstructions
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The emergence and radiation of metazoan body plans around the Precambrian/Cambrian boundary, some 500-600 million years ago, seems to be concordant with the appearance and diversification of preservable hard parts. Several Precambrian soft-bodied, multicellular organisms most likely represent stem-group bilaterians, but their fossil record is rather sparse.  In contrast, the Cambrian fossil record is comparably rich – comprising hard part, trace fossil and delicate soft tissue preservation – and most animal phyla that we know of today had evolved by the end of the Cambrian. Consequently, this time represents an important period in the early evolution of metazoan life forms. Most skeletal remnants of invertebrate organisms from this period are preserved in incomplete, disarticulated sclerite assemblages, and the true architecture of the original skeletal structure, the scleritome, may therefore be hard to discern. Many scleritomous taxa have been suggested to be members of the lophotrochozoan clade, while their exact position within this group remains unclear. Such taxa are often referred to as Problematica. This thesis deals with some problematic scleritomous early Cambrian lophotrochozoans, and as such also addresses the dilemmas of scleritome reconstructions. In the first part, completely disarticulated calcareous sclerites from the lower Cambrian of North Greenland are described as Trachyplax arctica. Hypothetical scleritome reconstruction alternatives and comparisons to other scleritome-bearing taxa are discussed, but the lack of articulated material obscures any satisfactory conclusions regarding phylogenetic affinities and the original morphology of the organism. The other part of the thesis focuses on some minute, organophosphatic scleritomous metazoans, tommotiids, found in lower Cambrian limestone successions in South Australia – Paterimitra pyramidalis and Kulparina rostrata – their scleritome architecture and their phylogenetic relationship with paterinid brachiopods. The oldest brachiopod from South Australia, Askepasma saproconcha, and the slightly younger Askepasma toddense are also described and discussed. Based on articulated specimens, recently described partial scleritomes of the tommotiid Eccentrotheca helenia and similarities in shell ultrastructure with both Eccentrotheca and Askepasma, Paterimitra is interpreted as a stem-group brachiopod and reconstructed as a bilaterally symmetrical, sessile, filter feeder with a tubular/conical scleritome. The morphological similarities with Paterimitra point in the same direction for the slightly older Kulparina.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. 47 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 967
Keyword
Problematica, scleritome, Trachyplax, tommotiid, Cambrian, South Australia, North Greenland
National Category
Geology Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Evolutionary Biology
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Historical Geology and Palaeontology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-180195 (URN)978-91-554-8462-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-10-19, Hambergsalen, Geocentrum, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-09-27 Created: 2012-08-31 Last updated: 2013-01-23Bibliographically approved

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Topper, Timothy PHolmer, Lars ELarsson, Cecilia M

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