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Body composition of Bangladeshi children: comparison and development of  leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance equation
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
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2012 (English)In: Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, ISSN 1606-0997, Vol. 30, no 3, 281-290 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of the Tanita TBF 300A leg-to-leg bioimpedance analyzer for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) in Bangladeshi children aged 4-10 years and to develop novel prediction equations for use in this population, using deuterium dilution as the reference method. Two hundred Bangladeshi children were enrolled. The isotope dilution technique with deuterium oxide was used for estimation of total body water (TBW).  FFM estimated by Tanita was compared to results of deuterium oxide dilution technique. Novel prediction equations were created for estimating FFM, using linear regression models, fitting child height and impedance as predictors.  There was a significant difference in FFM and BF% (percentage of body fat) between methods (p<0.01), Tanita under-estimating TBW in boys (p=0.001) and under-estimating BF% in girls (p<0.001). A basic linear regression model with height and impedance explained 83% of the variance in FFM estimated by deuterium oxide dilution. The best fit equation to predict FFM from linear regression modeling was achieved by adding weight, sex and age to the basic model, bringing the adjusted R2 to 89% (standard error=0.90, p<0.001). These data suggest Tanita analyzer may be a valid field assessment technique in Bangladeshi children when using population-specific prediction equations such as the ones developed here. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 30, no 3, 281-290 p.
Keyword [en]
Bioelectrical impedance, Body composition, Children, Deuterium oxide dilution, Bangladesh
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-180353ISI: 000309630700006OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-180353DiVA: diva2:549538
Available from: 2012-09-07 Created: 2012-09-04 Last updated: 2012-11-22Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Effects of Pre- and Postnatal Nutrition Interventions on Child Growth and Body Composition: The MINIMat Trial in Rural Bangladesh
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Pre- and Postnatal Nutrition Interventions on Child Growth and Body Composition: The MINIMat Trial in Rural Bangladesh
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Nutritional insults and conditions in fetal life and infancy may influence later growth and body composition as well as the development of chronic diseases in adult life. We studied the effects of maternal food and micronutrient supplementation and exclusive breast-feeding counseling on offspring growth 0-54 months and body composition at 54 months of age. We also validated and developed equations for a leg-to-leg bioimpedance analyzer in order to assess body composition of Bangladeshi children aged 4-10 years.

In the MINIMat trial in Matlab, Bangladesh, pregnant women were randomized to Early (around 9 weeks) or a Usual invitation (around 20 weeks) to food supplementation and to one of three daily micronutrient supplementations with capsules of either 30 mg Fe and 400 µg folic acid, or 60 mg Fe and 400 µg folic acid, or multiple micronutrient supplements (MMS) (15 micronutrients including 30 mg Fe and 400 µg folic acid). They were also randomized to exclusive breastfeeding counseling (EBC) or to usual health messages (UHM). Growth of their children was measured from birth to 54 months, when body composition also was assessed.

There were no differences in background characteristics across the different intervention groups. There was no differential effect by prenatal interventions on birth weight or length. Early invitation to food supplementation reduced stunting from early infancy up to 54 months for boys (average difference 6.5 percent units, 95% CI=1.7 to 11.3, p=0.01), but not for girls (average difference 2.4 percent units, 95% CI=-2.2 to 7.0, p=0.31). MMS resulted in more stunting than standard Fe60F (average difference 4.8 percent units, 95% CI=0.8 to 8.9, p=0.02). Breast-feeding counseling prolonged the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (difference 35.0 days, 95% CI 30.6-39.5, p<0.001). Neither the pregnancy interventions nor the breast-feeding counseling influenced body composition at 54 months.

Early food supplementation in pregnancy reduced the occurrence of stunting in boys 0-54 months, while prenatal MMS increased the proportion of stunting. Early food and multiple micronutrient supplementation or exclusive breastfeeding intervention provided to rural Bangladeshi women during pregnancy did not affect offspring body composition at 54 months of age. The effects on postnatal growth suggest programming effects in early fetal life.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. 63 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 811
body composition, child growth, exclusive breast feeding, food supplementation, multiple micronutrients, pregnancy, programming
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-180479 (URN)978-91-554-8467-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-10-17, Rosensalen, Akademiska sjukhuset, Entrance 95/96 nbv, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Available from: 2012-09-25 Created: 2012-09-07 Last updated: 2014-08-18

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