uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rapid annealing of reactively sputtered precursors for Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics. (Ångström Solar Center)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics. (Ångström Solar Center)
Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), C Jardins de les Dones de Negre, Sant Adrià del Besòs, Barcelona, Spanien.
Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), C Jardins de les Dones de Negre, Sant Adrià del Besòs, Barcelona, Spanien.
Show others and affiliations
2013 (English)In: Progress in Photovoltaics, ISSN 1062-7995, E-ISSN 1099-159X, Vol. 22, no 1, 10-17 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising thin-film absorber material that presents some interesting challenges in fabrication when compared with Cu(In,Ga)Se2. We introduce a two-step process for fabrication of CZTS films, involving reactive sputtering of a Cu-Zn-Sn-S precursor followed by rapid annealing. X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements of the sputtered precursor suggest that it is in a disordered, metastable CZTS phase, similar to the high-temperature cubic modification reported for CZTS. A few minutes of annealing at 550 °C are sufficient to produce crystalline CZTS films with grain sizes in the micrometer range. The first reported device using this approach has an AM1.5 efficiency of 4.6%, with Jsc and Voc both appearing to be limited by interface recombination. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 22, no 1, 10-17 p.
Keyword [en]
CZTS, Cu2ZnSnS4, kesterite, reactive sputtering, sulfides, thin film solar cells
National Category
Materials Chemistry Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-180994DOI: 10.1002/pip.2265ISI: 000328248500002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-180994DiVA: diva2:552590
Available from: 2012-09-14 Created: 2012-09-14 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Reactive sputtering and composition measurements of precursors for Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cells
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reactive sputtering and composition measurements of precursors for Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cells
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a thin film solar cell material that only contains abundant elements and for which promising conversion efficiencies of 9.2 % have been shown. In this thesis composition measurements and reactive sputtering of precursors for CZTS films have been studied. These precursors can be annealed to create high quality CZTS films.

Accurate control and measurement of composition are important for the synthesis process. The composition of a reference sample was determined using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. This sample was thereafter used to find the composition of unknown samples with x-ray fluorescence measurements. Pros and cons with this approach were discussed.

The reactive sputtering process, and the resulting thin films, from a CuSn- and a Zn-target sputtered in H2S-atmosphere were investigated and described. A process curve of the system was presented and the influence of sputtering pressure and substrate temperature were examined. The pressures tested had little influence on the film properties but the substrate temperature affected both composition and morphology, giving less Zn, Sn and S and a more oriented film with increasingly facetted surface for higher temperatures.

The precursors produced with this method are suggested to have a disordered phase with randomized cations, giving a CZTS-like response from Raman spectroscopy but a ZnS-pattern from x-ray diffraction measurements. The films have an excellent homogeneity and it is possible to achieve stoichiometric sulfur content.

The complete steps from precursors, to annealed films, to finished solar cells were investigated for three controlled compositions and three substrate temperatures. The films sputtered at room temperature cracked when annealed and thus gave shunted solar cells. For the samples sputtered at higher temperatures the trend was an increased grain size for higher copper content and increased temperature. However, no connection between this and the electrical properties of the solar cells could be found.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2013. 44 p.
Keyword
Cu2ZnSnS4, Kesterite, Reactive sputtering, Process curve, Photovoltaics, Composition measurments
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-208543 (URN)
Presentation
2013-06-03, Å2005, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-10-16 Created: 2013-10-02 Last updated: 2013-10-16Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text

Authority records BETA

Scragg, JonathanEricson, ToveKubart, TomasEdoff, MarikaPlatzer-Björkman, Charlotte

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Scragg, JonathanEricson, ToveKubart, TomasEdoff, MarikaPlatzer-Björkman, Charlotte
By organisation
Solid State Electronics
In the same journal
Progress in Photovoltaics
Materials ChemistryElectrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 1054 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf