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Biological Monitoring of Pesticide Exposures among Applicators and Their Children in Nicaragua
Programa de Salud Ocupacional y Ambiental, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Nicaragua, Leon (UNAN León), Nicaragua.
The Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington .
The Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.
Programa de Salud Ocupacional y Ambiental, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Nicaragua, Leon (UNAN León), Nicaragua.
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2006 (English)In: International journal of occupational and environmental health, ISSN 1077-3525, E-ISSN 2049-3967, Vol. 12, 312-320 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Exposures were assessed for seven small-scale farmers using chlorpyrifos on corn and ten banana plantation employees applying diazinon, and for one child of each worker. Metabolites (TCPYand IMPY) were measured in urine before and after applications. TCPY concentrations peaked at 27 and 8.5 hours post-application for applicators and children, respectively (geometric means, 26 and 3.0 microg/L). Proximity to spraying and spray mixture preparation in homes were important exposure factors. IMPY concentrations differed substantially across workers at two plantations (geometric means, 1.3 and 168 mirog/L); however, their children had little or no diazinon exposure. These workers and children were also exposed to chlorpyrifos, most likely through contact with chlorpyrifos-impregnated bags used in banana production. Several recommendations are offered: (1) monitor children's activities during applications; (2) do not store or prepare pesticides in homes; (3) institute sound occupational hygiene practices at banana plantations; (4) dispose of plastic insecticide bags properly at the worksite.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Maney Publishing, 2006. Vol. 12, 312-320 p.
Keyword [en]
pesticide exposure; Nicaragua; chlorpyrifos; diazinon; urinary metabolite; biological monitoring; applicators; children
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Epidemiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-182143OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-182143DiVA: diva2:558604
Available from: 2012-10-04 Created: 2012-10-03 Last updated: 2017-12-07
In thesis
1. Environmental Pesticide Exposure and Neurobehavioral Effects among Children of Nicaraguan Agricultural Workers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental Pesticide Exposure and Neurobehavioral Effects among Children of Nicaraguan Agricultural Workers
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Children exposed to pesticides are susceptible for neurodevelopmental disruption. Data from developing countries are scarce.

Aim: Assessing long-term and recent pesticide exposure in Nicaraguan children in relation to parental pesticide use and examining potential associated neurobehavioral effects.

Methods: In the first study, pre- and post-spraying urinary residues of the chlorpyrifos metabolite TCPY and diazinon metabolite IMPY were measured among 7 subsistence farmers and 10 plantation workers, and in one child per worker. In the second study, for 110 children in an agricultural village and 22 in a non-agricultural village, aged 7-9, parental pesticide use was assessed by hours of spraying and kilograms of active ingredients during pre-and-postnatal time windows, as proxies for children’s long term pesticide exposures. Urinary TCPY, 3-PBA (pyrethroid metabolite), and 2,4-D were determined in 211 samples of 74 children of the agricultural village. IQ components and total IQ (WISC-IV) were evaluated in all agricultural village children. Behavior was evaluated with the Conners’ Teacher Rating Scale-Revised: Short. Multivariate linear regression models assessed associations between long-term and recent exposure to organophosphates and pyrethroids and cognitive and behavioral scales.

Results: In study 1, post-spraying urinary levels of pesticide metabolites of subsistence farmers and their children were highly correlated (r=0.85), but not those of plantation workers and their children. In study 2, a wide range of exposures was reported by parents for all pesticides and time windows. The median urinary TCPY (3.7 μg/g creatinine), 3-PBA (2.8), and 2,4-D (0.9) were comparable to other studies for TCPY and 3-PBA but high for 2,4-D. Maximum levels were the highest reported for all compounds. Prenatal use of organophosphates affected working memory, and methamidophos also verbal comprehension and total IQ. Urinary TCPY was associated with poorer working memory. Organophosphate exposures were not associated with children’s behavior. Pyrethroid exposure during the first year of life associated with poorer perceptual reasoning and behavior, and urinary 3-PBA with a number of cognitive functions and ADHD in girls but not in boys.

Conclusion: Nicaraguan children in poor agricultural areas are highly exposed to pesticides, which is influenced by parental pesticide use in subsistence farms. Organophosphate and pyrethroid exposures adversely affect their neurobehavioral development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. 66 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 820
Keyword
pesticides, organophosphates, pyrethroids, children, cognitive function, behavioral outcomes, neurodevelopment
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-182164 (URN)978-91-554-8488-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-11-15, Frödingsalen, Ulleråkersvägen 40 A, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-10-24 Created: 2012-10-04 Last updated: 2013-01-23

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Rodríguez, Teresa

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