The chemical and mineralogical behavior of Pb in shooting range soils from central sweden
1995 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 89, no 3, 303-309 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Recently investigations have shown that the annual flux of lead from shotgun pellets to shooting range soils is significant in some countries. This paper presents the data of chemical and mineralogical analyses of soils and Pb-pellet crusts from five shooting ranges in Sweden and, based on these results, evaluates the retention of lead in these shooting range soils. In the soils, Pb-pellets and bullets are readily decomposed and transformed to crust materials composed of Pb-bearing minerals. The transformation products in the crust materials, identified by X-ray diffraction, are predominantly hydrocerussite [Pb3(CO3)2 (OH)2], associated with cerussite (PbCO3) and anglesite (PbSO4). In a period of 20–25 years, an average of 4·8% metallic lead in the pellets has been transformed to lead carbonate and lead sulphate, where the former is the more stable mineral in the surface environment. However, in soils relatively rich in humus an average of 15·6% metallic lead in the pellets was transformed to secondary lead compounds in the same period. The results of the chemical analyses indicate that Pb is rather immobile in the soil profile. The surficial horizon contains higher concentrations of lead (52–3400 mg kg−1), while lower concentrations of lead were found in the E and B horizons where the total Pb concentrations (8–37 mg kg−1) are within about one standard deviation of the mean reference sample concentration. An inverse relationship is revealed between the aluminium hydroxide content of the soil fraction and EDTA-extractable Pb, which suggests that these compounds have affected the retention of lead.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 1995. Vol. 89, no 3, 303-309 p.
shooting range soils hydrocerussite anglesite lead soil chemistry pellets lead
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-27984DOI: 10.1016/0269-7491(94)00068-OOAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-27984DiVA: diva2:55880
Addresses: LIN ZX, UPPSALA UNIV, INST EARTH SCI, NORBYVAGEN 18B, S-75236 UPPSALA, SWEDEN. OREBRO CTY BOARD, ENVIRONM UNIT, S-70186 OREBRO, SWEDEN.2008-10-172008-10-172012-01-12Bibliographically approved