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Monitoring and volumetric estimation of injected CO2 using 4D seismic, petrophysical data, core measurements and well logging: a case study at Ketzin, Germany
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
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2012 (English)In: Geophysical Prospecting, ISSN 0016-8025, E-ISSN 1365-2478, Vol. 60, no 5, 957-973 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

More than 50 000 tons of CO2 have been injected at Ketzin into the Stuttgart Formation, a saline aquifer, at approximately 620 m depth, as of summer 2011. We present here results from the 1st repeat 3D seismic survey that was performed at the site in autumn 2009, after about 22 000 tons of CO2 had been injected. We show here that rather complex time-lapse signatures of this CO2 can be clearly observed within a radius of about 300 m from the injection well. The highly irregular amplitude response within this radius is attributed to the heterogeneity of the injection reservoir. Time delays to a reflection below the injection level are also observed. Petrophysical measurements on core samples and geophysical logging of CO2 saturation levels allow an estimate of the total amount of CO2 visible in the seismic data to be made. These estimates are somewhat lower than the actual amount of CO2 injected at the time of the survey and they are dependent upon the choice of a number of parameters. In spite of some uncertainty, the close agreement between the amount injected and the amount observed is encouraging for quantitative monitoring of a CO2 storage site using seismic methods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 60, no 5, 957-973 p.
Keyword [en]
Data processing, Monitoring, Rock Physics, Seismics, Time lapse
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-182008DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2478.2012.01045.xISI: 000307899000009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-182008DiVA: diva2:559238
Available from: 2012-10-08 Created: 2012-10-02 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Geological Structure and Time-Lapse Studies of CO2 Injection at the Ketzin Pilot Site, Germany
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Geological Structure and Time-Lapse Studies of CO2 Injection at the Ketzin Pilot Site, Germany
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

3D seismic time-lapse surveys (“4D seismics”) are an essential tool for large scale reservoir characterization. The target reservoir of the Ketzin pilot project for CO2 storage is a saline aquifer of the heterogeneous Stuttgart Formation (Upper Triassic) in the Northeast German Basin. The focus of this project is on testing and further developing monitoring CO2 storage technologies. For time-lapse seismic monitoring, three seismic surface sources were characterized with respect to S/N (signal to noise) ratios, signal penetration, and frequency content by analysis of raw shot gathers and stacked sections along two lines at the Ketzin site. Differences in reflectivity between these 2D lines reflect the differences in the nature of the sources tested and how they influence the signal bandwidth (resolution) and signal energy. All three sources image the target horizon. The weight drop source was recommended as the primary source for 3D surveys based mainly on logistics and cost. Results of processing, including equalization of a 4D (3D time-lapse) data set from the Ketzin site and cross-correlation, indicate that the injected CO2 can be monitored. The highly irregular amplitude response on the time-lapse data can be attributed to the reservoir heterogeneity. Time-lapse seismic processing, petrophysical measurements on core samples and geophysical logging of CO2 saturation levels allow for an estimate of the total amount of CO2 visible in the seismic data to be made. In spite of some uncertainty, the close agreement between the injected and observed amount is encouraging for quantitative monitoring of a CO2 storage site using seismic methods. By integrating seismic modeling and multiphase fluid flow simulations, the impact of the reservoir temperature on the 4D seismic data from Ketzin was estimated. The modeled time-lapse seismic differences for two temperature scenarios present in the reservoir are minor regarding the qualitative analysis. However, the influence of temperature on the volumetric estimation of the CO2 using the 4D seismic data is significant. Future issues to be considered include expanding the temperature range (34-38°C in this study) to be investigated and the resulting effects on the seismic response, as well as the role of the reservoir heterogeneity. In addition, it would be important to investigate the impact of temperature on the CO2 storage at other sites with favorable P-T conditions in the reservoir. Further seismic modeling using results of petrophysical experiments for estimating the effect of the CO2 injection at the Ketzin site on the AVA/AVO response on time lapse seismic data was performed. Two effects were considered: the CO2-saturation- and the pore-pressure-related effects. The results indicate that it is worth investigating if it is possible to discriminate between these effects on future 3D repeat surveys at the Ketzin site.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. 96 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1026
National Category
Geophysics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-196127 (URN)978-91-554-8613-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-04-19, Hambergsalen, Villavagen 16, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-03-27 Created: 2013-03-04 Last updated: 2016-07-20Bibliographically approved

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Ivanova, AlexandraJuhlin, ChristopherIvandic, Monika

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