Characterization of In Vitro Synthesized Equine Metabolites of the Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators S24 and S4
2012 (English)In: Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, ISSN 0737-0806, E-ISSN 1542-7412, Vol. 32, no 9, 562-568 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Several selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have been synthesized and investigated in humans, rats, and dogs in the past, but no data are yet available concerning the metabolism of SARMs in horses. The aryl-propionamide-derived drug candidates S24 and S4 (andarine) have a strong androgen receptor binding affinity and show distinctive specific cell answers. Although no SARM drug candidate (aiming for testosterone replacement therapy) has completed clinical trials yet, S4 has been illicitly available via the Internet. These facts led to the prohibition of SARMs by the German equestrian federation, and the (mis)use of such compounds would further represent a doping rule violation in horse racing. In this study, the drug candidates S24 and S4 were subjected to in vitro metabolism experiments with equine liver microsomal preparations from a female Quarter Horse to obtain information about potential target analytes in equine doping control analysis. The enzymatically synthesized metabolites were characterized by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and –high-resolution/high-accuracy mass spectrometry. All observed S24 and S4 equine metabolites are in agreement with earlier in vitro and in vivo studies in humans and dogs. Nevertheless, the relative percentage of generated equine metabolites (as determined from the analytes’ response in full-scan chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and –high-resolution/high-accuracy mass spectrometry measurements) differs considerably from the reported profiles. Although the S24 metabolite pattern is comparably balanced concerning glucuronidated and sulfonated conjugates, the major S4 metabolite was found to be the unconjugated dephenylated compound, with a proportion of more than 90%.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 32, no 9, 562-568 p.
SARM, Equine, In Vitro, Metabolism, LC-MS
Analytical Chemistry Pharmaceutical Sciences
Research subject Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-182678DOI: 10.1016/j.jevs.2012.01.005OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-182678DiVA: diva2:560504