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Evasion of CO2 from streams: Quantifying a carbon component of the aquatic conduit in the boreal landscape
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences , 2011. , 44 p.
Series
Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae, ISSN 1652-6880 ; 2011:5
National Category
Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-182945ISBN: 978-91-576-7574-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-182945DiVA: diva2:561516
Opponent
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2005-4157
Available from: 2012-10-22 Created: 2012-10-19 Last updated: 2012-10-22Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Temporal and spatial variability of dissolved inorganic carbon in a boreal stream network: Concentrations and downstream fluxes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal and spatial variability of dissolved inorganic carbon in a boreal stream network: Concentrations and downstream fluxes
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2010 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 115, G02014- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carbon dioxide (CO2) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations and export were analyzed throughout a 67 km(2) boreal stream network in northern Sweden. 700 DIC and CO2 samples from 14 subcatchments were collected in 2006 and 2007. All sites were consistently supersaturated in CO2 with respect to the atmosphere. Temporal variability of DIC and CO2 concentration was best correlated with discharge, with concentrations generally diluting at high discharge. However, the variability in CO2 concentration was also dependent on the specific pH range of the stream, as variability was greatest in acidic headwater streams and lowest in larger circumneutral streams. In the larger ones the increase in the CO2 proportion of DIC at increased discharge counteracts the dilution of CO2. The shift toward proportionally more CO2 of the DIC at higher discharge is caused by decline in pH. Spatial patterns showed that DIC and CO2 concentrations were best correlated with peatland coverage of the subcatchment. The highest concentrations were found in headwater streams draining peatlands. The downstream export of DIC from the catchment outlet constitutes 19% of the total downstream export of carbon (DIC + DOC), or 0.7 (+/-0.09) g C m(-2) yr(-1). This study demonstrates the importance of including fluvial fluxes of inorganic carbon in landscape carbon budgets via runoff, and also highlights the need to account for stream evasion of CO2 to the atmosphere in such estimates since it can be larger than the downstream DIC export.

National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-140490 (URN)10.1029/2009JG001100 (DOI)000277479000002 ()
Available from: 2011-01-05 Created: 2011-01-05 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
2. Dissolved inorganic carbon export across the soil/stream interface and its fate in a boreal headwater stream
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dissolved inorganic carbon export across the soil/stream interface and its fate in a boreal headwater stream
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2009 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, 7364-7369 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-179359 (URN)10.1021/es900416h (DOI)
Available from: 2012-08-14 Created: 2012-08-14 Last updated: 2017-12-07
3. Spatiotemporal variability of the gas transfer coefficient (KCO2) in boreal streams: Implications for large scale estimates of CO2 evasion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatiotemporal variability of the gas transfer coefficient (KCO2) in boreal streams: Implications for large scale estimates of CO2 evasion
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2011 (English)In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 25, no 3, GB3025- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Boreal streams represent potentially important conduits for the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The gas transfer coefficient of CO(2) (K(CO2)) is a key variable in estimating this source strength, but the scarcity of measured values in lotic systems creates a risk of incorrect flux estimates even when stream gas concentrations are well known. This study used 114 independent measurements of K(CO2) from 14 stream reaches in a boreal headwater system to determine and predict spatiotemporal variability in K(CO2). The K(CO2) values ranged from 0.001 to 0.207 min(-1) across the 14 sites. Median K(CO2) for a specific site was positively correlated with the slope of the stream reach, with higher gas transfer coefficients occurring in steeper stream sections. Combining slope with a width/depth index of the stream reach explained 83% of the spatial variability in K(CO2). Temporal variability was more difficult to predict and was strongly site specific. Variation in K(CO2), rather than pCO(2), was the main determinant of stream CO(2) evasion. Applying published generalized gas transfer velocities produced an error of up to 100% in median instantaneous evasion rates compared to the use of actual measured K(CO2) values from our field study. Using the significant relationship to local slope, the median K(CO2) was predicted for 300,000 km of watercourses (ranging in stream order 1-4) in the forested landscape of boreal/nemoral Sweden. The range in modeled stream order specific median K(CO2) was 0.017-0.028 min(-1) and there was a clear gradient of increasing K(CO2) with lower stream order. We conclude that accurate regional scale estimates of CO(2) evasion fluxes from running waters are possible, but require a good understanding of gas exchange at the water surface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2011
Keyword
CO2, Gas transfer coefficient, Krycklan, evasion, headwaters, streams
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-160730 (URN)10.1029/2010GB003975 (DOI)000295522900001 ()
Available from: 2011-11-01 Created: 2011-10-31 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved

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