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Adhesion phenomena in the secondary shear zone in turning of austenitic stainless steel and carbon steel
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences. (Tribomaterials group)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences. (Tribomaterial)
Sandvik Machining Solutions, Stockholm.
Sandvik Machining Solutions, Stockholm.
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 214, no 8, 1467-1481 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper aims to increase the understanding of the adhesion between chip and tool rake face by studying the initial material transfer to the tool during orthogonal machining at 150 m/min. Two types of work material were tested, an austenitic stainless steel, 316L, and a carbon steel, UHB 11. The tools used were cemented carbide inserts coated with hard ceramic coatings. Two different CVD coatings, TiN and Al2O3, produced with two different surface roughnesses, polished and rough, were tested. The influences of both tool surface topography and chemistry on the adhesion phenomena in the secondary shear zone were thus evaluated. Extensive surface analyses of the inserts after cutting were made using techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). As expected, cutting in the stainless steel resulted in a higher amount of adhered material, compared to cutting in the carbon steel. Remnants of built-up layers were found on the surfaces of the 316L chips but not on the UHB 11 chips. Moreover, it was shown that for both materials the tool roughness had a profound effect, with the rougher surfaces comprising much higher amounts of adhered material than the polished ones. Non-metallic inclusions from both types of workpiece steels accumulate in the high temperature area on the inserts. The general tendency was that higher amounts of transferred material were found on the TiN coating than on the Al2O3 coating after cutting.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 214, no 8, 1467-1481 p.
Keyword [en]
adhesion, austenitic stainless steel, carbon steel, surface roughness, cutting tools
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Tribo Materials
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-183185DOI: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2014.01.017ISI: 000336341300001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-183185DiVA: diva2:562066
Available from: 2012-10-23 Created: 2012-10-23 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Tribology at the Cutting Edge: A Study of Material Transfer and Damage Mechanisms in Metal Cutting
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tribology at the Cutting Edge: A Study of Material Transfer and Damage Mechanisms in Metal Cutting
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The vision of this thesis is to improve the metal cutting process, with emphasis on the cutting tool, to enable stable and economical industrial production while using expensive tools such as hobs. The aim is to increase the tribological understanding of the mechanisms operating at a cutting edge and of how these can be controlled using different tool parameters. Such understanding will facilitate the development and implementation of future, tribologically designed, cutting tools.

Common wear and failure mechanisms in gear hobbing have been identified and focused studies of the material transferred to the tool, in both metal cutting operations and in simplified tribological tests, have been conducted. Interactions between residual stresses in the tool coating and the shape of the cutting edge have also been studied.

It was concluded that tool failure is often initiated via small defects in the coated tool system, and it is necessary to eliminate, or minimize, these defects in order to manufacture more reliable and efficient gear cutting tools. Furthermore, the geometry of a cutting edge should be optimized with the residual stress state in the coating, in mind. The interaction between a compressive stress and the geometry of the cutting edge will affect the stress state at the cutting edge and thus affect the practical toughness and the wear resistance of the coating in that area.

An intermittent sliding contact test is presented and shown to be of high relevance for studying the interaction between the tool rake face and the chip in milling. It was also demonstrated that material transfer, that can have large effects on the cutting performance, commences already after very short contact times. The nature of the transfer may differ in different areas on the tool. It may include glassy layers, with accumulations of specific elements from the workpiece, and transfer of steel in more or less oxidized form. Both tool coating material, its surface roughness, and the relative speed between the tool surface and the chip, may influence the extent to which the different transfer will occur.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. 77 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 988
Keyword
Tribology, Metal cutting, Gear hobbing, Wear, Coating, Residual stress, Material transfer, Steel
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Tribo Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-183186 (URN)978-91-554-8514-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-12-07, 2005, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 10:15 (Swedish)
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-11-16 Created: 2012-10-23 Last updated: 2013-01-23Bibliographically approved

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Gerth, JuliaGustavsson, FredrikHeinrichs, JannicaWiklund, Urban

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