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Antioxidant Profile of Ethoxyquin and Some of Its S, Se, and Te Analogues
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry.
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2007 (English)In: Journal of Organic Chemistry, ISSN 0022-3263, E-ISSN 1520-6904, Vol. 72, no 16, 6046-6055 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

(Chemical Equation Presented) 6-(Ethylthio)-, 6-(ethylseleno)-, and 6-(ethyltelluro)-2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline-three heavier chalcogen analogues of ethoxyquin-were prepared by dilithiation of the corresponding 6-bromodihydroquinoline followed either by treatment with the corresponding diethyl dichalcogenide (sulfur derivative) or by insertion of selenium/tellurium into the carbon-lithium bond, oxidation to a diaryl dichalcogenide, borohydride reduction, and finally alkylation of the resulting areneselenolate/ arenetellurolate. Ethoxyquin, its heavier chalcogen analogues, and the corresponding 6-PhS, 6-PhSe, and 6-PhTe derivatives were assayed for both their chain-breaking antioxidant capacity and their ability to catalyze reduction of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of a thiol reducing agent (thiol peroxidase activity). Ethoxyquin itself turned out to be the best inhibitor of azo-initiated peroxidation of linoleic acid in a water/chlorobenzene two-phase system. In the absence of N-acetylcysteine as a coantioxidant in the aqueous phase, it inhibited peroxidation as efficiently as α-tocopherol but with a more than 2-fold longer inhibition time. In the presence of 0.25 mM coantioxidant in the aqueous phase, the inhibition time was further increased by almost a factor of 2. This is probably due to thiol-mediated regeneration of the active antioxidant across the lipid-aqueous interphase. The ethyltelluro analogue 1d of ethoxyquin was a similarly efficient quencher of peroxyl radicals compared to the parent in the two-phase system, but less regenerable. Ethoxyquin was found to inhibit azo-initiated oxidation of styrene in the homogenous phase (chlorobenzene) almost as efficiently (k inh = (2.0 ± 0.2) × 106 M-1 s -1) as α-tocopherol with a stoichiometric factor n = 2.2 ± 0.1. At the end of the inhibition period, autoxidation was additionally retarded, probably by ethoxyquin nitroxide formed during the course of peroxidation. The N-H bond dissociation enthalpy of ethoxyquin (81.3 ± 0.3 kcal/mol) was determined by a radical equilibration method using 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol as equilibration partners. Among the investigated compounds, only the tellurium analogues 1d and, less efficiently, 1g had a capacity to catalyze reduction of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of thiophenol. Therefore, analogue 1d is the only antioxidant which is multifunctional (chain-breaking and preventive) in character and which can act in a truly catalytic fashion to decompose both peroxyl radicals and organic hydroperoxides in the presence of suitable thiol reducing agents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 72, no 16, 6046-6055 p.
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Chemical Sciences
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URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-28320DOI: 10.1021/jo0705465ISI: 000248344400013PubMedID: 17602530OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-28320DiVA: diva2:56216
Available from: 2007-08-15 Created: 2007-08-15 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved

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