Community development actions to achieve the Millennium Development Goals: An analysis based on a surveillance site in Cuatro Santos, Nicaragua
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
According to preliminary data, the remote rural area of Cuatro Santos, Nicaragua has shown improvements in almost all Millennium Development Goals (MDG), while a set of interventions have been running in the area. This study describes the progress toward a set of MDG, as well as the geographical disparities encountered in reaching MDG1.
We investigated selected MDG prospectively and retrospectively in 2004 and 2009, and prepared a descriptive analysis of MDG and community interventions by proportions, rates, and ratios. In order to determine any geographical disparities in progress toward MDG1 among the households receiving interventions, we used a spatial scan test (SaTScan®) to identify unique non-random spatial clusters of poverty and interventions, and a retrospective model to identify multiple clusters in a defined geographic area. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were also performed to examine the participation of single interventions on the poverty clusters that were identified by the spatial cluster analysis technique.
Descriptive analysis indicated that poverty and under-five mortality declined in Cuatro Santos. Education showed no wide inequality by gender. Access to drinking water and sanitation has risen, but is not universal. Spatial analyses identified a sizeable cluster of poor households located in the northeast part of Cuatro Santos with a high probability of receiving one or more intervention. However, none reached this area. More detailed analyses of the relations between the single interventions and the poverty clusters showed that almost all interventions were positively related to the low poverty clusters (OR > 1), and negatively connected to the high-poverty clusters (OR > 1).
The Cuatro Santos area of Nicaragua has reached several millennium targets, and scaling up of community actions has accelerated the trend towards fulfilling MDG without increasing inequality. However, a geographical analysis reveals that areas of high poverty barely reached by interventions remain. Therefore, continuous surveillance is important to prioritize segments of the population with more social needs.
Millennium Development Goals, interventions, inequality, rural, spatial model, Nicaragua
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-183133OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-183133DiVA: diva2:563938