Mechanisms underlying intensive care unit muscle wasting and effects of passive mechanical loading
2012 (English)In: Critical Care, ISSN 1364-8535, E-ISSN 1466-609X, Vol. 16, no 5, R209- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Critical ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients commonly develop severe muscle wasting and impaired muscle function, leading to delayed recovery, with subsequent increased morbidity and financial costs, and decreased quality of life of survivors. Critical illness myopathy (CIM) is a frequently observed neuromuscular disorder in ICU patients. Sepsis, systemic corticosteroid hormone treatment and post-synaptic neuromuscular blockade have been forwarded as the dominating triggering factors. Recent experimental results from our group using a unique experimental rat ICU model have shown that the "mechanical silencing" associated with the ICU condition is the primary triggering factor. This study aims at (1) unraveling the mechanisms underlying CIM, and (2) evaluating the effects of a specific intervention aiming at reducing the mechanical silencing in sedated and mechanically ventilated ICU patients. METHODS: Muscle gene/protein expression, post-translational modifications (PTMs), muscle membrane excitability, muscle mass measurements, and contractile properties at the single muscle fiber level were explored in seven deeply sedated and mechanically ventilated ICU patients (not exposed to systemic corticosteroid hormone treatment, post-synaptic neuromuscular blockade or sepsis) subjected to unilateral passive mechanical loading 10 hours per day (2.5 hours, 4 times) for 9 +/- 1 days. RESULTS: These patients developed a phenotype considered pathognomonic of CIM, i.e., severe muscle wasting and a preferential myosin loss (P<0.001). In addition, myosin PTMs specific to the ICU condition were observed in parallel with an increased sarcolemmal expression and cytoplasmic translocation of nNOS. Passive mechanical loading for 9 +/- 1 resulted in a 35% higher specific force (P<0.001) compared with the unloaded leg, although it was not sufficient to prevent the loss of muscle mass. CONCLUSIONS: Mechanical silencing is suggested to be a primary mechanism underlying CIM, i.e., triggering the myosin loss, muscle wasting and myosin PTMs. The higher nNOS expression found in the ICU patients and its cytoplasmic translocation are forwarded as a probable mechanism underlying these modifications. The positive effect of passive loading on muscle fiber function strongly supports the importance of early physical therapy and mobilization in deeply sedated and mechanically ventilated ICU patients.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 16, no 5, R209- p.
Clinical Laboratory Medicine
Research subject Clinical Neurophysiology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-183734DOI: 10.1186/cc11841ISI: 000317499900046PubMedID: 23098317OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-183734DiVA: diva2:563985
De två (2) första författarna delar förstaförfattarskapet.2012-11-012012-11-012016-07-19Bibliographically approved