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Robust VAWT control system evaluation by coupled aerodynamic and electrical simulations
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
2013 (English)In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 59, 193-201 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A control system for a vertical axis wind turbine is presented.The control strategy is to determine the electric load solely from the rotational velocity and the characteristics of the turbine, thus measurement of the incoming wind velocity is not required.The control system is evaluated with an aerodynamic vortex model coupled with an electrical model.Three different sets of control system parameters are tested, due to the trade off between high power absorption and achieving a fast system with high stability.The control systems are tested against a reference strategy where the wind speed is known.The simulations show that the three control systems provide a similar power absorption as the reference case.For dynamic cases, with fast changes in wind speed, the fast control strategies are beneficial.All control strategies are stable throughout the simulations when proper power absorption characteristics of the turbine are used. It is also shown that if peak power absorption is estimated at a too low tip speed ratio, the control strategies may inadvertently stop the turbine.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013. Vol. 59, 193-201 p.
Keyword [en]
Wind power, VAWT, Darrieus Turbine, Control system, Numerical simulation, Vortex method
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-183738DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2013.03.038ISI: 000320827300024OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-183738DiVA: diva2:563995
Available from: 2012-11-01 Created: 2012-11-01 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Fluid Mechanics of Vertical Axis Turbines: Simulations and Model Development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fluid Mechanics of Vertical Axis Turbines: Simulations and Model Development
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Two computationally fast fluid mechanical models for vertical axis turbines are the streamtube and the vortex model. The streamtube model is the fastest, allowing three-dimensional modeling of the turbine, but lacks a proper time-dependent description of the flow through the turbine. The vortex model used is two-dimensional, but gives a more complete time-dependent description of the flow. Effects of a velocity profile and the inclusion of struts have been investigated with the streamtube model. Simulations with an inhomogeneous velocity profile predict that the power coefficient of a vertical axis turbine is relatively insensitive to the velocity profile. For the struts, structural mechanic loads have been computed and the calculations show that if turbines are designed for high flow velocities, additional struts are required, reducing the efficiency for lower flow velocities.Turbines in channels and turbine arrays have been studied with the vortex model. The channel study shows that smaller channels give higher power coefficients and convergence is obtained in fewer time steps. Simulations on a turbine array were performed on five turbines in a row and in a zigzag configuration, where better performance is predicted for the row configuration. The row configuration was extended to ten turbines and it has been shown that the turbine spacing needs to be increased if the misalignment in flow direction is large.A control system for the turbine with only the rotational velocity as input has been studied using the vortex model coupled with an electrical model. According to simulations, this system can obtain power coefficients close to the theoretical peak values. This control system study has been extended to a turbine farm. Individual control of each turbine has been compared to a less costly control system where all turbines are connected to a mutual DC bus through passive rectifiers. The individual control performs best for aerodynamically independent turbines, but for aerodynamically coupled turbines, the results show that a mutual DC bus can be a viable option.Finally, an implementation of the fast multipole method has been made on a graphics processing unit (GPU) and the performance gain from this platform is demonstrated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. 111 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 998
Keyword
Wind power, Marine current power, Vertical axis turbine, Wind farm, Channel flow, Simulations, Vortex model, Streamtube model, Control system, Graphics processing unit, CUDA, Fast multipole method
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-183794 (URN)978-91-554-8539-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-12-14, Polhemssalen, Ångströmslaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-11-22 Created: 2012-11-01 Last updated: 2013-02-11
2. A Generator Perspective on Vertical Axis Wind Turbines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Generator Perspective on Vertical Axis Wind Turbines
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The wind energy conversion system considered in this thesis is based on a vertical axis wind turbine with a cable wound direct drive PM generator. Diode rectifiers are used to connect several such units to a single DC-bus and a single inverter controls the power flow from the DC-bus to a utility grid. This work considers the described system from a generator perspective i.e. the turbine is primarily seen as a torque and the inverter is seen as a controlled load.

A 12 kW VAWT prototype with a single turbine has been constructed within the project. The power coefficient of this turbine has been measured when the turbine is operated at various tip speed ratios. This measurement determines both how much energy the turbine can convert in a given wind and at what speed the turbine should be operated in order to maximise the energy capture. The turbine torque variation during the revolution of the turbine has also been studied.

A PM generator prototype has been constructed in order to study power loss in the stator core at low electrical frequencies. Heat exchange between the stator and the air-gap between the stator and the rotor has been studied. Heat exchange between the stator and the air-gap is increased by turbulence caused by the rotor. The generator was also used in a demonstration of a DC-grid where two diode rectified PM generators supplied power to a single DC load.  An initial study of an inverter suitable for grid connection of the 12 kW PM generator has been performed.

Several turbine control strategies are evaluated in simulations. The control strategies only require the parameter "turbine speed" to determine the optimal system load.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. 80 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1034
Keyword
VAWT, PM generator, Wind power, Stator core loss
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-197855 (URN)978-91-554-8642-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-05-22, Siegbahnsalen, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-04-25 Created: 2013-04-05 Last updated: 2013-08-30Bibliographically approved

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Goude, AndersBülow, Fredrik

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