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"Särdeles jag är så till segandes i svårt Målbrott": Om Anders Sparrmans språk
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
2012 (Swedish)In: Anders Sparrman: Linnean, världsresenär, fattigläkare / [ed] Gunnar Broberg, David Dunér & Roland Moberg, Uppsala: Svenska Linnésällskapet , 2012, 157-170 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

Anders Sparrman (1748–1820) föddes i Lena församling, 20 km norr om Uppsala. Han var en av Carl von Linnés yngsta lärjungar och många författare har senare beskrivit honom både vetenskapligt och akademiskt. Flera av dessa har bidragit till att Sparrman i efterhand fått ett negativt rykte, vilket huvudsakligen bygger på hans misslyckanden som intendent vid Vetenskapsakademiens naturaliekabinett. Omdömet om honom som skribent har tyvärr präglats av denna negativa syn och lett till att hans svenska skriftspråk beskrivs som slarvigt, att han inte månade om sitt eget språk och inte heller brydde sig om att lära sig främmande språk då han vistades utomlands.

Undersökningen gäller Sparrmans svenska skriftspråk både i hans brev till Linné och i hans senare utgivna reseberättelse i tre delar (1783, 1802 och 1818). Under 1700-talet fanns ännu inget fastlagt svenskt skriftspråk. Vissa skrivna och oskrivna rekommendationer gavs dock, bl.a. att skriva i enlighet med det offentliga talspråket. Eftersom linnélärjungarna kom från olika svenskspråkiga landsdelar hördes olika dialekter i det vardagliga akademiska språket med inslag av franska och latin. Sparrmans skriftspråk visar därför på en blandning av talspråk, dialekt och främmande språk.

Med stöd av citat ur Sparrmans brev och hand reseberättelse konstateras att han var mycket medveten om sitt eget språk. Han påpekar själv bl.a. att han ansträngde sig att "översätta" sina dagboksanteckningar till korrekt svenska. I ett av breven ursäktar han sig inför Linné för den språkblandning som han uppvisar genom att han vistades utomlands och påverkades av många olika språk och dialekter.

Sparrman var således varken omedveten om sitt eget brevspråk eller slarvig med det tryckta språket i reseberättelsen. Tvärtom arbetade han hårt med att författa sina brev på korrekt svenska och rättade sitt skriftspråk så noga som man kan förvänta sig på 1700-talet.

Abstract [en]

Anders Sparrman (1748–1820) was born in Uppland, 20 kilometer north of Uppsala. He was one of Linnaeus’ youngest disciples and many authors have described his scientific and academic achievements. Some of these authors have negatively contributed to Sparrman’s posthumous reputation, mainly based on remarks regarding his failings as keeper of the collection of natural-history specimens at the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences. Unfortunately, Sparrman’s reputation as a writer has been coloured by this negative view, leading to statements that his language was “rather irregular and written in a whimsical way”, that his diction was careless and negligent, and that he paid no attention to learn foreign languages while he resided abroad.

This paper concentrates on Sparrman’s written Swedish as reflected in his letters to Linnaeus (1771–1776) as well as in his travelogues (1783, 1802 and 1818). During the 18th century there were not yet any approved Swedish standard, but some written and unwritten rules were at hand. The official recommendations were to write the way you spoke, i.e. according to the official spoken language. Many of Linnaeus’ disciples came from remote areas in Sweden and their respective native language – as well as Linnaeus’ own dialect of Smaland in the south of Sweden – was heard in daily conversation. In addition, spoken language was influenced by fashionable French and academic Latin. Thus, Sparrman’s written language reflects some foreign and local words, as well as inflections and conjugations from spoken language. However, quotations from Sparrman’s letters and from his travelogues clearly shows that he was well aware of his language failures, and that he made great effort in “translating” his hand-written travel-notes into proper Swedish. In one of his letters to Linneaus he also excuses himself of his “language-mix” that he resided far away from Sweden and was exposed to many different languages and dialects.

In conclusion, Sparrman was neither negligent of his written language in his letters nor careless of his written language in his publications. On the contrary, he tried hard to write his letters in a proper way, and corrected his written language in publications as well as could be expected in the 18th century.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Svenska Linnésällskapet , 2012. 157-170 p.
Keyword [sv]
Svenska, 1700-tal, skriftspråk, talspråk, dialekt
National Category
Humanities
Research subject
Scandinavian Languages
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-188625ISBN: 978-91-85601-42-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-188625DiVA: diva2:578500
Available from: 2012-12-18 Created: 2012-12-18 Last updated: 2013-04-11Bibliographically approved

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