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A summary of global 129I in marine waters
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Tandem Laboratory.
2013 (English)In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, Vol. 294, 537-541 p.Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite the many investigations concerning the occurrence of anthropogenic iodine-129 in the atmosphere, terrestrial and marine environments, there is a lack of a comprehensive collection of data on the distribution of the isotope in marine waters. The temporal and spatial variability of anthropogenic 129I is strongly linked to the major point sources in the Irish Sea and the English Channel and the global marine spreading pathways are partly outlined from these sources. The temporal evolution is still, however, not well defined when transport and dissipation are considered in the different oceans and ocean compartments. We here summarize available published literature data on 129I temporal and spatial distribution in the global marine water. The results show presence of numerous data sets for the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans where strong variability in terms of water depth, time and location also occur. Scarcity of data on 129I from the Pacific, Indian and South Atlantic Oceans demonstrates gaps in the coverage of the isotope spatial extent. These shortcomings in the spatial coverage may relate to the understanding that the anthropogenic 129I signal will take a long time to be transported, if at all, from the North Atlantic into other oceans. Data from recent expeditions in the Southern oceans and the Geotraces ocean profiling will reveal additional information about 129I distribution in the marine waters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 294, 537-541 p.
Keyword [en]
129I, Distribution, Global oceans
National Category
Natural Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-193889DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2012.08.036ISI: 000313234300103OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-193889DiVA: diva2:604951
Twelfth International Conference on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Wellington, New Zealand, 20-25 March 2011
Available from: 2013-02-12 Created: 2013-02-06 Last updated: 2014-01-23Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Iodine Isotopes and their Species in Surface Water from the North Sea to the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Iodine Isotopes and their Species in Surface Water from the North Sea to the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Huge amounts of anthropogenic 129I have been and still are released to the environment through liquid and gaseous discharges from the nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities worldwide and in particular the ones in Europe. Most of this 129I signal has been accumulated in the marine environment which plays a major role in the iodine natural pool.  In this thesis, an overview of available 129I concentrations in waters of the oceans and marginal seas together with new data about 129I and 127I spatial distribution in surface seawater along a transect between the North Sea and the northeastern Atlantic Ocean are presented. After comprehensive chemical separation, the concentrations of iodine isotopes (127I and 129I) and their species (iodide and iodate) were analysed using accelerator mass spectrometry and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results show that, generally, changes in the 127I and 127I-/127IO3- are comparable to data from other marine waters which are related to natural distribution patterns. A considerable variation of 129I along the transect is observed with the highest values occurring in the eastern English Channel and relatively low values obtained in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Inventory estimations of 129I in the North Sea and the English Channel are 147 kg and 78 kg, respectively, where more than 90% resides in the Southern Bight and the eastern English Channel. Iodate is the dominant iodine species for both 127I and 129I in most seawater samples from the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. 129I species variability suggests a slow process of 129I- oxidation in the open sea. It takes at least 10 years for the 129I-/129IO3- pair to reach their natural equilibrium as the water is transported from the English Channel. The results suggest a main transport of 129I from the western English Channel via the Biscay Bay into the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Further, high 129I/127I and distinctive 129I-/129IO3- values south of 40°N indicate possible contribution of 129I through Mediterranean Outflow Water. The environmental radioactive impact of 129I and possible applications in ecosystem studies are also discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. 73 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1068
iodine isotopes, 129I, 127I, oceans, North Sea, speciation, Atlantic Ocean, English Channel, Celtic Sea, AMS, iodine chemistry, geochemistry
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Environmental Analysis
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-206711 (URN)978-91-554-8743-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-10-18, Axel Hambergsalen, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Available from: 2013-09-27 Created: 2013-09-03 Last updated: 2014-01-23

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He, PengPossnert, Göran
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