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Influence of Coastal Upwelling on the Air-Sea Gas Exchange of CO2 in a Baltic Sea Basin
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. (Awep)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. (Awep)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. (Awep)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. (Awep)
2013 (English)In: Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology, ISSN 0280-6509, E-ISSN 1600-0889, Vol. 65, no 21831, 1-16 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During coastal upwelling cold water from the ocean interior with high CO2 concentration is brought up to the surface, allowing this water to interact with the atmosphere. This sets the stage for events with potentially altered sea–air CO2 fluxes. Four upwelling events off the east coast of Gotland in the Baltic Sea were analyzed to assess the impact of upwelling on the air–sea exchange of CO2. For each event, the observed pCO2 were found to be a function of sea-surface temperature (SST) in the upwelling area, which allowed satellite observations of SST to form a proxy for surface water pCO2. A bulk formula was then used to estimate the air–sea CO2 flux during the upwelling events. The results show that the CO2 fluxes in the study area are highly influenced by the upwelling. Comparing with idealized cases without upwelling yields relatively large differences, ranging between 19 and 250% in reduced uptake/increased emission of CO2. Upwelling may also influence the CO2 fluxes on larger scales. A rough estimate indicates that it may also be of significant importance for the average annual CO2 flux from the Baltic Sea. Including upwelling possibly decreases the Baltic Sea annual average uptake by up to 25%.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 65, no 21831, 1-16 p.
Keyword [en]
coastal upwelling, carbon dioxide, air–sea exchange, Baltic Sea measurements, remote sensing
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Meteorology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-194940DOI: 10.3402/tellusb.v65i0.21831ISI: 000328681800001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-194940DiVA: diva2:606674
Available from: 2013-02-20 Created: 2013-02-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Air-Sea Fluxes of CO2: Analysis Methods and Impact on Carbon Budget
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Air-Sea Fluxes of CO2: Analysis Methods and Impact on Carbon Budget
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important greenhouse gas, and the atmospheric concentration of CO2 has increased by more than 100 ppm since prior to the industrial revolution.  The global oceans are considered an important sink of atmospheric CO2, since approximately one third of the anthropogenic emissions are absorbed by the oceans. To be able to model the global carbon cycle and the future climate, it is important to have knowledge of the processes controlling the air-sea exchange of CO2. In this thesis, measurements as well as a model is used in order to increase the knowledge of the exchange processes.

The air-sea flux of CO2 is estimated from high frequency measurements using three methods; one empirical method, and two methods with a solid theoretical foundation. The methods are modified to be applicable for various atmospheric stratifications, and the agreement between methods is good in average.

A new parameterization of the transfer velocity (the rate of transfer across the air-sea interface), is implemented in a Baltic Sea model. The new parameterization includes also the mechanism of water-side convection. The impact of including the new parameterization is relatively small due to feedback processes in the model. The new parameterization is however more representative for flux calculations using in-situ measurement or remote sensing products. When removing the feedback to the model, the monthly average flux increases by up to 20% in some months, compared to when water-side convection is not included.

The Baltic Sea carbon budget was estimated using the Baltic Sea model, and the Baltic Sea was found to be a net sink of CO2. This is consistent with some previous studies, while contradictory to others. The dissimilarity between studies indicates the difficulty in estimating the carbon budget mainly due to variations of the CO2 uptake/release in time and space. Local variations not captured by the model, such as coastal upwelling, give uncertainties to the model. Coastal upwelling can alter the uptake/release of CO2 in a region by up to 250%. If upwelling would be included in the model, the Baltic Sea might be considered a smaller sink of CO2.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. 47 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1020
Keyword
air-sea exchange, carbon dioxide, Baltic Sea, eddy-covariance method, inertial dissipation method, cospectral-peak method, Baltic Sea measurements, CO2 fluxes, Galathea 3 expedition, Baltic Sea modeling, water-side convection, coastal upwelling, carbon budget
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Research subject
Meteorology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-194960 (URN)978-91-554-8599-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-04-05, Hambergsalen, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-03-14 Created: 2013-02-20 Last updated: 2013-04-02Bibliographically approved

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Norman, MariaParampil, SinduRutgersson, AnnaSahlée, Erik

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