Adhesion Dependent Signals: Cell Survival, Receptor Crosstalk and Mechanostimulation
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
The integrin family of cell surface receptors is evolutionary conserved and found in all multicellular animals. In humans 8-alpha and 18-beta integrins are non-covalently associated into 24 dimers. Integrins mediate cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell interactions and participate in cell signalling. This ideally places integrins to regulate vital processes such as cell adhesion, migration, differentiation and cytoskeleton dynamics. Integrins also play a fundamental role in regulating cell survival and anoikis. In this thesis molecular mechanisms employed by integrins to induce signal transduction, independently or through crosstalk with other receptors, were characterised.
Rictor-mTOR (mTORC2) was required for Akt Ser473 phosphorylation in response to β1 integrin-mediated adhesion as well as EGF-, PDGF- or LPA-stimulation of MCF7 cells. ILK and PAK were dispensable for Akt Ser473 phosphorylation upon β1 integrin-engagement or EGF-stimulation. PAK was needed when this phosphorylation was induced by PDGF or LPA. β1 integrin-promoted cell survival during serum starvation conditions was mTORC2 dependent, indicating the importance of Akt Ser473 phosphorylation.
mTORC2 was also required for Akt Ser473 phosphorylation induced upon heparanase treatment of cells. Heparanase preferred PI3K catalytic subunit p110α for the upstream lipid phosphorylation required for Akt activation. Interaction between this subunit and Ras was needed for optimal Akt phosphorylation upon heparanase exposure. Cell adhesion strongly promoted heparanase signalling, which was more efficient in β1 integrin-expressing fibroblasts compared to cells lacking this subunit. The cooperative signalling between integrins and heparanase involved FAK and PYK2 since simultaneous silencing of these kinases suppressed heparanase-triggered Akt activation. Furthermore, the resistance of cells to apoptosis induced by H2O2 or serum starvation was promoted by heparanase.
Integrin stimulation by adhesion or cyclic stretching showed divergent downstream signalling responses. Cell attachment on integrin-specific ligands lead to robust phosphorylation of several intracellular integrin-effectors, e.g. p130CAS, FAK, Akt and ERK 1/2. However, mechanical cell stretching only triggered prominent phosphorylation of ERK 1/2. Signalling induced at early stages of integrin-mediated cell adhesion occurred independently of intracellular contraction. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during adhesion and cell stretching influenced integrin signalling. Inhibition of mitochondrial ROS production blocked adhesion-induced Akt phosphorylation. In contrast, stretch-induced ERK 1/2 phosphorylation was elevated when extracellular ROS was scavenged. These results indicate that the two types of integrin stimuli generate signals by different mechanisms.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. , 48 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 868
Integrins, Signal transduction, Protein kinase B, Akt, PI3K, Heparanase, ROS, Mechanosignalling
Cell and Molecular Biology
Research subject Molecular Cellbiology; Biology with specialization in Molecular Cell Biology; Cell Research
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-195712ISBN: 978-91-554-8604-4OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-195712DiVA: diva2:608340
2013-04-12, BMC C4:305, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiolog, BMC, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Hallberg, Bengt, Professor
Johansson, Staffan, Professor
List of papers